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WSU COMSOC 321 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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More uncertainty= more opportunityReducing uncertainty by talking about a very specific topicVerbally= using wordsNon verbally= using slides, or facial expressions, body posture etc..3. Fidelity of a message accuracy of message transmission: amount of information sent equals amount of information received; the greater the uncertainty or entropy reduced, the more information transmitted by the message.4. Perfect communication: amount of information sent = amount of information received5. Noise: technical or human distortions in the system.Strengths & Weaknesses of the Mathematical ModelStrengths:Provides an objective measure (quantity) of communication effectiveness.Weakness:Meanings of messages are not consideredOne-way communicationHow symmetry is achieved:Arrive at an agreement regarding x (such as in persuasion)Changing one’s orientation toward the otherStrengths and weakness of the interaction modelStrengths of the interaction model:Communication is two-way, an interactionTells us when communication is likely to occurWeaknesses of the interaction model:Does not explain how communication worksKey Concepts:Encoding: process of transforming responses into signsMessage: verbal and non-verbal signs; transmits information (quantity) and meaningDecoding: process by which the receiver makes sense of the message; interprets meaning.Communication is goal-directed and a transaction; both source and receiver gain from participation.Communication Goals:Communicator goals: to inform, teach, persuade, to please (to be liked)Receiver goals: to learn, to acquire skills and knowledge, to make choices, reach decisions, to enjoy, relax and be entertained.Definitions:Signs: physical representation of a source’s response to a stimuli; transmits meaning and informationLanguage: formal system of sign and rules: verbal or non-verbalfacial expressions: 10,000 different human facial expressionsparalinguistic: vocal deliveryGestures: movements of hands, arms, body, face and eyesBody language and postureProxemicsEye contactHaptics5000 visual images per dayWhy visual images are a more powerful tool than languageShannon and Weaver Model= amount of info from source= amount of info to receiverABX Model= symmetry (We agree about what we are talking about and how we feel about each other.)Conceptual Model= Mutual gain and mutual goalsThe exchange of information between at least 2 participants from different cultures. To attain goals in a mutual satisfying relationship. Pg. 21Source and receiver are from two different cultureMutual satisfying relationship = end goal that is desiredWhat do they have in common?a. Culture is a characteristic of people who identify with a groupb. Individual is aware of groups’ existence and acknowledges membershipc. Culture includes agreement on cultural dimensions; can be material or non-materiald. Culture guides responses to and interpretations of the environmente. Culture is a pattern of shared dimensionsf. Culture is shared using verbal and nonverbal signalsg. Culture is transmitted over timeh. Culture can changea. silence is used differently in each country.Japan (High context) versus United States (low context)High context cultures:JapanChinaKoreaLow Context cultures:GermanScandinavianNorth Americana. solutions to common problems indicate society’s values regarding the dimensionsb. how these values are measured: hills et al. interviewed young people, and their parents in Samoa, Fiji and the Cook islands to study generational changesi. important * the past- preserving. Present emphasis change happening and the problem is how to adjust to changes1. ex) the internet1. universalism vs. particularism2.individualism vs. communitarism3. specific vs. diffuse relations4. neutral vs. emotional5. achievement vs. ascription6. Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time7. Internal vs. External directionCOMSOC 321 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide ComSoc 321 STUDY GUIDE TEST 1Chapter 1: Introduction1. Course and text key concepts- Communication: a process by which information is shared between a source and receiver. It is purposive, in that source and receiver will be directed by goals to engage in the interaction. It is a transaction, since source and receiver stand to gain by engaging in the interaction; and itis a process since it is ongoing and can continue on until one party decides to end the interaction.o Information can be: facts; emotions; impressions; perceptions and interpretations of the real world; desires and intentions; and just about anything that the initial source wishes to share with the receiver. o Can be verbal or non verbal- Culture: Culture is accumulated, passed on over time, accepted ways ofbehaving, shared values (what is important, shared beliefs (what is true) and worldviews (how the natural and social environment is seen) of members of an identifiable group. Therefore, we can speak of organization culture (such as in Microsoft, a particular university or a student group); national cultures based on geographical boundaries; gender and sexual orientation cultures (as in male, female, gay and lesbian cultures); age cultures (as in youth culture), or racial ethnic cultures, (such as in cultures of “Eastern” and “western” societies that can be subdivide into specific groups like Japanese and Americans.)o To study intercultural communication we have to assume that an individual shares some cultural components with his or her identified group that are relevant at the moment, but allow for deviations from this assumption.- Intercultural communication: Occurs when the source and the receiver are from different cultural groups, each bringing into the interaction a set of values, beliefs, world views and behavioral patters that influence how messages are sent, received, evaluated and the ensuing responses if any, o Focusing on individual person, since messages are originated by individuals, whether sent interpersonally or face-to-face, or via a medium such as television, newspapers, and the internet. - Effective intercultural communication: Occurs when the source and receiver from different cultures achieve their goals and some degreeof satisfaction from the encounter. The criteria are similar to criteria for effective communication in general. o The original goals of source and receiver may have been modified during the transaction (as in compromise resulting from negotiation), but both parties should feel that each has accomplished “something”.o Two-way


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