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BGSU GEOL 1040 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GEOL 1040 1st EditionExam# 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 11Lecture 1 (January 12)Chapter 1How does the study of geology benefit society? 1) natural resources (e.g., petroleum/gas, metals, building materials and water)2) Environmental awareness (how long will our resources last and where can we find more?)3) Understanding natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, etc.) to prevent disasters. Lecture 2(January 4)Professor Panter’s profession is: VolcanologistLecture 3 (January 16)Earth’s Interior (pages 8 & 9) Major layers of the Earth - coreo Outer coreo Inner Core- mantleo Uppero Lower- crust o Oceanico ContinentalDifference between continental and oceanic crust- Oceanic Crust is thinner and denser. Typically made up of Basalt rocks. Normallyis the plate that is subducted- Continental Crust is thicker and less dense. Typically made up of granite. Lecture 4 (January 21)Differences between the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere:The lithosphere is made up of the uppermost mantle andEarth’s crust. It is incredibly strong and makes up what are known as “plates. The Asthenosphere is made up of the lower mantle. It is solid, but is hotter than the lithosphere. It can flowunder pressure. It is also much weaker thanthe lithosphereEarth’s plates are made up of the lithosphereThe lithosphere is made up of:- Crust- Uppermost mantleLecture 6 (January 26)How does the Sun’s energy drive the hydrological cycle?Rock Cycle1) Weathering: Sunlight, rain, wind, and other things interact with the surface. 2) Erosion and transport: rocks loosened by weathering can be stripped away by erosion. Then can be moved away from their source. Glaciers, flowing water, wind, and gravity on hillslopes can transport eroded materials3) Deposition: happens when transportation energy decreases sufficiently.Sediments reside to channels4) Burial and Lithifications: Once deposited, sediments can be buried. The weight of overlying material compacts them. The process of sediments turning into rock is Lithifications5) Deformation and Metamorphism: strong forces can squeeze rock and fold its layers (deformation) If buried deeply, rocks can be heated and deformed to create metamorphic rock.6) Melting: Rock exposed to high temps may melt. This produces magma. Occurs at great depth.7) Solidification: magma cools by being pushed deeper down or after being erupted. This is called solidification. Crystallization happens at this stage8) Uplift: A rock might be uplifted back to the surfaceLecture 7 (January 28)Difference between a hypothesis and theoryHypothesis: involves gathering facts through observations and formulations of ideasTheory: Set of hypothesis and FACT that have survived repeated challenges and accepted by majority of scientific community.Four major pieces of evidence that Alfred Wegner used to support his idea of Pangaea- “cut and paste” fit of the continentso Geographically countries can fit together- Distribution of fossil recordso Animals found on Africa were found in South America- Ancient climates not explained with current positionso Traces of glaciers were found in areas that do not make sense today. Africa has glacier evidence- Sequence of rock typeso Same sequence found across the world. Lecture 8 (January 30)Know the difference between an element, a compound (molecule), a mineral and a rock. Element: a type of atom that has a specific number of protons and chemical structure.- Elements form together to make Compounds, which form together to make minerals.Minerals: a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with a relatively consistent composition- Minerals combine together to form rocks.We can identify minerals without fancy equipment by looking at the:- crystal shape- Color- cleavage- luster- effervescenceo does it react to acid- hardness- streak color- magnetism- densityIn what ways do some of the physical properties of minerals reflect their internal atomic structure? - Identifying property of cleavage reflects bonds between atoms.o 1 plane shows thin sheets with weak atom arrangements- Crystal form reflects the geometric arrangement of atomso Halite is cubic because their atoms areThe seven mineral classes are:- Silicates: main element silicon- Carbonates: main element carbon- Oxides: main element is oxygen- Halides: main element is Chlorine- Sulfates: main element is oxidized sulfur- Sulfides: Main element is sulfur- Native minerals: Ag, Cu, AuLecture 9 (February 4) . What rock-forming mineral group is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust? - SilicateMost abundant Rock forming mineral group in the mantle - O, si, s, FeMost abundant Rock forming mineral group in the core? - Iron and Nickel Silicate group minerals all have a common building block called the silica tetrahedron. Si tetrahedron can be isolated or bond together as single and double chains, sheets and 3-D frameworksWhat are some common minerals that are important to society? - Iron- Sodium (halite)- Silicon- Copper- Phosphorus- Calcium (calcite)Lecture 10(February 06) Igneous Rocksare formed from the cooling of magmaWhat does a cooled magma consist of? - silicate liquid, crystals (minerals) and gas.How do we study magmas? - It is very difficult to study magmas because magma is so hot and potentially dangerous (poisonous gas and eruptions). But we can study the rock that has cooled from magma. We study igneous rocks by examining the rock texture and mineralogy (composition). What is the textural difference between igneous intrusive (plutonic) and igneous extrusive (volcanic) rocks. - Intrusive rocks have much larger crystals. Extrusive rocks have crystals so small you need a microscope. How does the texture relate to cooling history?- The longer it takes for a rock to cool, the larger the crystals will be. Things that cool rapidly often have gas bubbles also. Know the different textures; glassy, aphanitic, phaneritic, porphyritic and pegmatitictextures and how each relate to the rate of cooling of magma. - Glassy: magma cools very rapidly- Aphanitic: fine grained minerals show that the magma cooled rapidly. - Phaneritic: course grained texture show that the magma was slowly cooled- Porphyritic: Minerals form at different cooling rates. Started off quickly, then cooled more slowly.- Pegmatic: minerals are greater than 1 cm. minerals form in volatile rich magma.Study the figureYou should know the six igneous rock names; peridotite, basalt, gabbro, diorite, andesite, rhyolite and


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