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UVM CALS 85 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CALS 085 1st EditionExam# 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 -4Lecture 1 (January 14)Dimensions of Learning: Reflective, Conditional, Procedural & Declarative.Teaching Style: Prepared, Accessible and Responsive, Clear and Precise, Transparent, Energetic, Data Driven, Fair, etc. Lecture Section TA: Katherine Logan ([email protected]) Reasons to use APA Format:1. APA is the most widely used format in the social sciences (widely used for instruction) APA is the most widely used format in the social sciences (widely used for instruction)2. Many other styles are similar.3. Documentation is readily available i. Online ii. Comprehensive iii. Free4. Some styles offer multiple methods of citing/referencing material5. Simple and inornate styleMajor Styles:•American Medical Association (AMA) •American Psychological Association (APA) •Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago or CMS) •Council of Science Editors (CSE) •Harvard Style (Harvard) •Modern Language Association (MLA)Important Note about Styles:•The editor will make the final decision regarding style •This often means using a variation of the common style, modified to fit the needs of the editor/editorial teamThe Digital Divide/Class Struggle Notes:Reading on the Digital Production Gap: http://www.cjr.org/essay/class_struggle.php?page=allVideo on the Digital Production Gap: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-029CXbeOjYDigital Divide/Class Struggle Notes:(Direct Quotes/Chosen Excerpts)“Journalists have more responsibilities than ever, and so they’ve come to rely on Twitter, Facebook, local blogs, and Google as vital parts of their news-gathering efforts. Before this digital shift, journalists too often under-reported, stereotyped, and misrepresented poor and working class Americans. Now, social media allows a broader array of citizens to participate in the creation and distribution of local news.”“Do these new platforms help marginalized voices represent themselves better in the media? Not really. Over the past five years, I’ve been researching the barriers and divides of who is producing publicly available digital content.“According to my data, aside from age, socioeconomic class is the key determinant of one’s likelihood to engage in activities such as blogging, social networking, or posting to video sites. I found that the production barrier isn’t simply a question of access to the Internet.“Instead, the low rate of citizen journalists in a city like Modesto is related to the low levels of education and income among a significant proportion of its residents.”“Internet users with a college education are twice as likely as their high school-educated counterparts to post videos and photos online. Also, bloggers are one and a half times more likely to have a college degree than just a high school diploma.”“How, then, can low-income people in cities like Modesto become active producers of media rather than passive consumers of others’ attempts to cover them (or the lack thereof)?”“It is the working class that has lost the most during this transformation of the news media. Not only does coverage of their world suffer like that of other constituencies in an era of reduced investigative reporting, but they are also not as apt to contribute to the new citizen journalism cloud. Any solution to this gap must address the fundamental socioeconomic gaps between digital haves and have-nots. The ability of a city like Modesto to engage more of its citizens online may well rest on its ability to confront this thorny topic. Otherwise, the more elite classes that dominate the cloud will continue to drown out the voices of the marginalized.”Marginalize = peripheral = insignificantConstituencies: Body of voters in a specified area who elect a representative to a legislative body. Why does this matter? Because policy makers often ignore issues that are not covered by the media. So marginalized voices are not heard. Production or Consumption?Digital Inequality or Digital Democracy?Temporary or Persistent Gap?Lecture 2 (January 22) Reading on APA General Format: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/Video on How CPU is Made: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvluuAIiA50Burlington has 2nd oldest populationMedian age = 40-44 years old Vermont is the most rural state in the nationComputer Labs on Campus: Morrill Hall Computer Lab, Waterman computer lab, Bailey Howe LibraryHardware (noun): physical components of a computerFunctions:1. Input2. Processing3. Output4. StorageParts of a computer1. Case2. Input/Output (I/O) Port Connectors3. Power Supply4. Motherboard5. Cooling System (Heat Sink and/or Fan)6. Central Processing Unit (CPU)7. Random-access Memory (RAM)8. Storage Drive (Hard Disk Drive or Solid State Drive)Case:Protects components of computerDo not need case for devise to operatePower Supply for Unit is at top of unit: This manages heat; the heat dissipates up and out. Fans are used to cool computersInput/Output (I/O) Port Connectors: Includes USB port and other types of portsPower Supply: (Giveaway): plug to power supplyMotherboard:Green circuit board. All the different components are connected to motherboard(Connected, sauntered, attached, etc.)Cooling System (Heat sink and/or fan):Thermal gel to help heat move throughIncreased Surface Area helps move heatFan actively moves heatIf any part of it is active, then the entire piece is considered active coolingCentral Processing Unity (CPU):Where processes are createdRandom-access Memory (RAM):Certain amounts of information are temporarily stored on these chipsInformation is spread out in a way so that it can be accessed more quicklyStorage Drive (Hard Disk Drive) and Solid State Drive (Flash Memory):Hard Disk Drives are cheaper and noisier and more likely to have failure than Flash Memory Drives. Though they also provide more storage space. Head reads and writes information onto platter itself. Hard Drive:Unlike RAM memory, data stays on the storage drive (hard disk drive or solid state drive) when the computer is shut off.Unity, Abbreviation, Size in Bytes:Byte, B, 1, 2 to the 0 powerKilobyte, KB, 1,024…………..2 to the 10 powerMegabyte, MB, 1,048,576……….2 to the 20 powerGigabyte, GB, 1,073,741,824………2 to the 30 powerTerabyte, TB, 1,099,511,627,776……….2 to the 40 powerPetabyte, PB, 1,125,899,906,842,624……….2 to the 50 powerExamples of Size of Storage Media:3.5 Inch HD diskette = 1.44 MBStandard CD = ~700MBDVD = ~4.7 GB to 8.5


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