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UNCW BIO 368 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 368 1st Edition Exam #1 Study GuideDefinitions:1. Heritability- resembling your parents more than any other individual in a population2. Selection- unit of selection= individual not reproducing it’s own gene (example with the sacculina carcini crab- parasite gets in the crab and makes a spongy thing-crab secretes something to not make the parasite reproduce- parasite is “borrowing” stuff from the crab, individual organism (beaver), sub individual (sperm); genes act in their own self-interest basically3. Strategy- genetic-based decision rule or collection of behavioral responses4. Reaction norm- the relationship between phenotype and the environment for each genotype when phenotype variation is continuous5. Fitness- currency of natural selection; long-term contribution of an individual to the reproductive outcome of a population; measured as # of young, # of successfully reproducing young, and # descendants several generations later; distinct from ‘condition’ or ‘equality’ (use words like this instead of fitness); importance of survival6. Phenotypic plasticity- the ability of a single genotype to alter its phenotype in response toenvironmental conditions7. Common garden (transplant experiment)- an experimental approach example; where there’s different populations of organisms and you put them in a common environment. If the same population then it’s the gene but if not then it’s the environment; where one or more organisms are moved from one environment to another; two species from the same environment could be transplanted into a common environment for example. 8. Reciprocal transplant- often to see if there is a genetic component to different populations; when you introduce two or more organisms into each others environment9. Game theory- How one player should act based on how others around act; premise is optimal strategy depends on your opponents move10. ESS (Evolutionary Stable Strategy)- a strategy is an ESS if it can invade a population in which all individuals are playing any other strategy and a population in which all individuals who are playing the strategy cannot be invaded by an alternate strategy; example hawk-dove game11. Greenbeard-recognition+altruism gene; if you’re a greenbeard then you will help other individuals with a greenbeard but if you come across someone without a greenbeard then harm12. Eusociality- evolved through the subsocial route, the parasocial route and kin; when not every organism reproduces on purpose13. Subsociality- more support than parasocial; start off with group offspring with parents and one is good to reproduce while other group (siblings) can’t (because of scarce food maybe) so they help their siblings that can reproduce- we saw this in birds when families helped each other14. Parasociality- multiple reproducers, one nest, then with time one becomes more dominantand others help with reproduction15. Caste- examples are queens, drones (males-mate and die), workers/soldiers (all females)16. Royal Jelly-a substance secreted by honeybee workers and fed by them to larvae that are being raised as potential queen bees17. Optimizing- maximize benefits (costs); do not always maximize benefits; why does adult mortality matter? fitness=lifetime reproductive contribution, cost of adult mortality is linear inclutch size18. Satisificing- the best thing is the optimal thing; finding something food enough but not always optimal (example is going to pizza places to try to get the best pizza but you stop searching when you find one that is good enough to call best for you even though there might be a better pizza out there that is more optimal)Details To Know:1. Properties of winning strategies in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma- if both players don’t say anything then each player gets a brief sentence; we have the nash equilibrium (all players making the best decision given the decisions of the other players) to always defect; the optimalsolution is to defect because you don’t know what the other player will do2. Tinbergen’s four questionsa. Mechanism- hormonal triggers and nervous systemb. Ontogeny- How does the behavior develop with age? Example: learned from parentsc. Adaptive significance(current utility)- How does behavior affect survival or reproductiond. Phylogeny-How did the behavior evolve?3. Four types of interactions among individuals- a. Cooperation: most common is in group living; extreme cases- symbiosis; eusociality; positive recipient effect and positive actor effectb. Selfish: most common; negative recipient effect and positive actor effectc. Altruism: positive recipient effect and negative actor effectd. Spite: Negative recipient effect and negative actor effectConcepts:1. Factors determining phenotype Pi of individual i in environment j: Pij=Gi+Ej2. Sources of non-additive genetic variation:a. dominant genes, multigenic or non-mendelian inheritance (Va)b. epigenetics (example: methylation and what makes a good mouse mother is licking pups)c. additive genetic variation is what is exactly exposed to selection3. Finding the optima- present vs. future reproductiona. Why produce offspring now? Because competition could be better now or less nowb. Semelparous- reproduce once and diec. iteroparous- reproduce multiple timesd. fitness isocliners4. Group selection:a. Doesn’t work because if there is one selfish gene then he gets everything and reproduces the most while the others don’t reproduce as muchb. Individual is faster and stronger because of thisc. Group doesn’t care if individual does something for the group- individual looks out for himself too5. Experimental Approach vs. Comparative Approach vs. Phylogenetic Approacha. EA measures costs and benefits (examples are the black-headed gull removing the egg shell, crows dropping off whelks, common garden, and importance of proper control)b. CA (example: gull nesting and ungulate society) limitations: need to consider alternate hypothesis (avoid ‘just-so’ stories), need to quantify variables (reduce observer influence and pattern-fitting), evolutionary cause and effect (which trait came first?), attributing meaning to non-adaptive differences (phylogenic history and homology), and statistical non-independence (phylogenetic constraint)i. Example to fix limitations= 1st is quantitative comparative approach BUT how can you really quantify how much food vs home range for examplec. PA we can look at traits that different species have; method is


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