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WVU ATTR 219 - Anatomy of Knee

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ATTR 215 1st Edition Lecture 7Anatomy of the KneeTibia- proximal end forms tibial plateaus-articulates w/ femoral condyles -tibial plateaus separated by intercondylar tubercles-have medial and lateral tubercle-lateral tibial plateau is smaller than medial tibial plateay-tibial plateaus slope posteriorly-cruciate ligaments and meniscus attach anterior and posterior to tubercles (cartilage in knee)-distal to plateaus is the tibial tuberosity-common insertion for patellar tendon-distal and anterior to tibial plateau are the lateral and medial condyles- Lateral condyle has facet that articulates with the head of the fibula(facet: extremely smooth surface of bone)-just medial to lateral condyle is the point known as Gerdy’s Tubercle- Gerdy’s Tubercle: point of muscular attachmentFemur-has medial and lateral condyleThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Medial- slightly more distal and longer than the lateral-femoral condyles project more posterior than they do anterior-trochlear is the patellofemoral groove (patella is located here)-posteriorly the condyles are separated by intercondylar notch or nossa- Linea aspera- longitdual ridge on posterior surface of femur (also known as “rough line”)-medial and lateral supracondyle lines- lines that run from each femoral condyle posteriorly into linea aspera-sitting directly superior to each condyle is an epicondyle-just superior to medial epicondyle is the projection known as adductor tubercle- Adductor tubercle serves as point of attachment for adductor magnus muscle (medial side) and adducts muscle-small groove is present within each medial and lateral condyle to accommodate the medial and lateral meniscus*anterior meniscus slides into this groove in full extension*Patella-largest sesamoid bone in the body-rounded triangular bone and only has articulation with the femur-will only dislocate laterally-posteriorly surface of patella divided into 3 facets:- Medial- Lateral- Odd-as flexion in the knee increases, contact with the patella moves proximal- Contact begins at 10-20 degrees of flexion and is mostly distal- 45 degrees of flexion- contact in the middle- 60 degrees of flexion- superior- 90-135 degrees of flexion- odd facet contacts patellofemoral groove-fibula does not have direct articulation with the knee and this is non-weight bearing- serves for ligaments and muscular attachmentJoints and Articulations of the Knee-tibiofemoral- primary knee joint-patellofemoral-superior tibiofibular- not much articulation with the kneeNervous Innervation-sciatic nerve provides most of motory and sensory innervation to lower extremity-sciatic comes off lumbosacral plexus-splits into common peroneal and tibial nerves at proximal popliteal space-tibial pierces gastrocnemius muscles-common peroneal wraps around fibular head-branch of tibial nerve- sural nerve- Innervation to skin of posterior lower leg and lateral foot-common peroneal innervates knee and short head of bicep femoris muscle-tibial also innervates knee and muscles of posterior lower legHamstrings-Biceps femorisOrigin of long head: ischial tuberosityOrigin of short head: linea aspera and proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondylar lineInsertion: head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia, deep fascia on lateral lower legAction: flexion of knee/lower legExtends hip/thighExternal rotates hip/lower legNerve to long head: tibial branch of sciaticNerve to short head: peroneal branch of sciaticArtery: profunda femoris and poplitealSemitendinosusOrigin: ischial tuberosity and tendon of bicep femorisInsertion: upper anterior medial tibial condyle Action: flexion of the knee and lower legNerve: tibial branch of sciatic Artery: profunda femoris and poplitealPes anserine insertion is common insertion for semitendinosus, gracilis and


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