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ESC_PS 4170 1st EditionExam # 1 Study GuideChapter 2: Research - Research is a way of knowing that emphasizes systematic investigation- Basic Research: carried out to address one or more theoretical questions- Applied Research: carried out to solve real life problems- Action Research: carried out to find out what works in a particular situation with a particular group of people- Evaluation Research: carried out to determine the effectiveness of existing programs- Qualitative Research: used to examine questions that can best be answered by verbally describing how participants in a study perceive and interpret various aspects of their environment- Quantitative Research: used to examine questions that can best be answered by collecting and statistically analyzing data that are in numerical form- Historical Research (quantitative): goal is to establish casual relationships among variables- Ethnographic Research (qualitative): range from studying one individual to an entire culture- Survey Research: goal is to provide numerical description of how one or more variables are distributed among a population- Correlational Research: used to determine the extent which two or more variables are related- Group Comparison Research: examines differences in the distribution of values of a single variable among two or more groups of people- Single-Subject Research: the subject may be a single individual or a single groupChapter 3: Research Issues- Hypothesis: tentative, testable statement about relationships among variables- Random Sampling: samples that are selected in such a way that every member of the populationhas an equal chance- Stratified Sampling: form of systematic sampling that requires that a population be broken into sub-populations prior to selecting the sampleThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Cluster Sampling: involves the random selection of sampling units of progressively smaller size- Convenience Sampling: not random, happened to be able to select with ease- Validity: appropriateness of inferences made from the scores obtained- Reliability: degree of consistency of measurementChapter 4: The Language of Statistics- Statistics can be divided into two types: inferential and descriptive- Nominal: name/category- Ordinal: ordering/ranking- Interval: number/space between each number is equal- Ratio: interval and true zero point reflects the absence of measured characteristic- Datum is singular of data- Parametric Statistics: conducted on data sets upon which certain assumptions are made - Non-parametric Statistics: conducted on data sets which do not meet parametric assumptions- Population: complete set of measurements of any characteristicChapter 5: Probability- Experiment: situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called outcomes- Outcome: result of a single trial of an experiment- Event: one or more outcomes - P(E) = Number of outcomes corresponding to event E/total number of outcomesChapter 6: Distributions and Graphs- Raw Data: collected in random form - Know grouped vs ungrouped frequency (more vs less data)- Bar graph vs Histogram- Normal Curve: bell-curve (mesokurtic)- Leptokurtic Curve: bell-shaped, piling up of scores in the middle- Platykurtic Curve: bell-shaped, non-normal spreading of scores- Multi-modal Curve: scores pile up in more than one specific valueChapter 7: Percentiles and Percentile Ranks- Percentile Rank: indicate the relative position of an individual in a group- PR = ( cumfLL+(X-XLL/i)(fi)/N ) x100- Score = XLL + i(cumf-cumfLL)/fiChapter 8: Measures of Central Tendency- Central Tendency: index of central location employed in the description of frequency distributions- Mean: arithmetic average of all scores in a distribution- Weighted Mean: sum of the means of each group multiplied by their respective weights, divided by the sum of the weights- Median: score or potential score in a distribution of scores above and below which one-half of the frequencies fall - Mode: occurs with the greatest frequencyChapter 9: Measures of Variability- Variability: measure of the spread of scores about a measure of central tendency- Range: measure of dispersion or the scale difference between largest and smallest score- Mean Deviation: equal to the sum of the deviations of each score from the mean - Variance: sum of the squared deviations from the mean divided by N- Standard Deviation: useful measure of dispersion defined as the square root of the sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by NSkew: if skew = 0 then the distribution is normal. In the event that skew is greater than +/- .50, the distribution is considered

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