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ECU BIOL 2110 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Biol 2110 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 4Lecture 1 (January 14)The Chemistry of Microbiology- Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass- Atoms – the smallest chemical units of matter- Nucleus – structure containing neutrons and protons- *Neutrons – uncharged particles in the nucleus- *Protons – positively charged particles in the nucleus, atomic number- *Electrons – negatively charged subatomic particles circling a nucleus, outermost electron is called a valence electron*Subatomic particles- Element – pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom- Atomic number - equal to the number of protons in the nucleus- Atomic mass/weight – sum of masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons- Isotopes – atoms of a given element that differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei- Chemical bonds – atoms combine by sharing or transferring valence electrons- Molecule – two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds- Compound – a molecule composed of more than one element- Covalent bond – sharing of a pair of electrons by two atomso Nonpolar – shared electrons spend equal amounts of time around each nucleus, no poles existo Polar – unequal sharing of electrons polarity- Ionic bond – atoms with either positive (cation) or negative (anion) charges, cations and anions attract each other to form ionic bonds (no shared electrons)- Hydrogen bond – electrical attraction between charged H+ and negative charge on same or different molecule, weaker than covalent bonds but essential for life- *Oxidation – losing electrons- *Reduction – gaining electrons*OIL RIG- Synthesis Reactions – endothermic (require energy), anabolism, dehydration- Decomposition Reactions – exothermic (release energy), catabolism, hydrolysis- Watero Most abundant substance in organismso 2 polar covalent bondso Solvento Freezes at 0 C, boils at 100 C, body temp around 37 C, room temp around 20 C, fridge around 4-8 C o Pure water has a pH of 7- Acid < 7 pH- Base > 7 pH- Organic Macromoleculeso Lipids Monomer: fatty acids Hydrophobic (insoluble in water) Fats, phospholipids (hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail), waxes, steroidso Carbohydrates Monomer: monosaccharide Disaccharide = 2, polysaccharide = many, oligo = 10-15 Linked by glycosidic bonds Glucose is a 6 carbon sugar *****ANIMALS CANNOT DIGEST CELLULOSE, TOTALLY DEPENDS ON MICROBES***** Dextrans – secreted by some bacteria to form slime layers, biofilms- Ex. Plaque on teeth and gums Agar – used to make solid culture media, comes from seaweeds, complex of galactose and sulfur containing carbs, solidify Chitin – polymer of glucosamine, major component of many fungi- Ex. Insect shell Peptidoglycan – glycans (polysaccharides) linked by small peptides- Ex. Bacterial cell walls Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – complex of lipids and polysaccharides- Ex. Gram-negative cell wallso Proteins Monomer: amino acids 22 AA’s Linked by peptide bonds R groups (side chains) are the only thing that changes in AA’s Ex. Mad cow disease – misfolded protein Ex. Hemoglobin – 4 polypeptide chains, heme groupso Nucleic Acids Monomer: Nucleotides DNA and RNA Phosphate, Pentose sugar, CGTA or U C triple bond G T double bond A in DNA U double bond A in RNA DNA double stranded- 2 strands complimentary- 2 strands antiparallel- Storage ATP = adenosine triphosphate, energy, covalent bond is highly energeticLecture 2 (January 21) Welcome to Microbiology- Cannot be seen with the “naked” eye- Microbiology sometimes referred to as bugs or germs- Leeuwenhoek – father of microscope, microorganisms- He could have seen fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, Achaea, small animals- *****Measles coming back in the western states*****- Helminthes – parasitic worms- Aristotle – spontaneous generation, living things from nonliving things- Redi – fly, maggot, meat experiment- Pasteur – swan-necked flasks- Know about fermentation and industrial uses of microbes- Pathogens – disease causing agents- Koch – staining, petri dish, photomicrograph, bacteria- Kluyver and van Niel – microbes used as model systems for biochemical reactions- Recombinant DNA technology – genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications- Gene therapy – inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting desired gene into host cells, modern biotechnology- Microorganisms in the environmento Detoxify o Recyclingo Decomposero Most are harmless- Taxonomy – system for organizing, classifying, and naming living thingso Genus name then species Ex. Escherichia coli (E. coli)- 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya- Phylogeny – natural relatedness between groups or organismsLecture 3 (January 28)Lab Methods and Infection/Disease- Magnification vs. resolution- Total magnification = power of objective x power of ocular-- Bright-field – most widely used, specimen is darker than surrounding field- Dark-field – brightly illuminated specimens surrounded by dark field- Phase-contrast – transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity, best for observing intracellular structures- Light vs. confocal vs. electron microscopy (2 types: transmission and scanning)- Probe – magnifies > 1,000,000,000 (2 types: scanning tunneling and atomic force)- Culture – visible growth of microorganisms in or on a medium- Colony – macroscopic cluster of cells appearing on a solid surface, each arising from a single cell- Subculture – transfer and culturing a “tiny” sample of a “well-defined” isolated colony- Pure culture – contains a single species- Mixed culture – contains more than one species- Contaminated culture – contains “unwanted” species- *****Inoculation, Alexander Fleming – mold killed bacteria*****- *****PENICILLIN 1ST ANTIBIOTIC*****- Media classified by stateo Physical – solid, liquid, semisolid (agar)o Chemical – synthetic, non-synthetico Functional – general purpose, enriched, selective, differential, anaerobic, transport, assay, enumeration- *****Bacteria that require growth factors and complex nutrients are termed fastidious*****- Symbiosis – live together, 3 typeso Mutualism – both benefit Ex. Bacteria in human colono Commensalism – one benefits and one neutral Ex. Staph on skino Parasitism – one benefits and


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