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U of A SOCI 2013 - Review guide for Exam I

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Review guide for Exam IGeneral Sociology 2013To study for the exam, go to the end of chapters one and two and you will find a list of key terms. You will be responsible for all of them. You should know more than the definition of each term. You should be able to illustrate the concept with an example and even how it has evolved over time. For instance, a social institution is an established and organized system of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose. The family is an example of a social institution. The family as an institution has been greatly impacted by the progression of the modern era. The beliefs that support “family values” have also been impacted and evolved. This was the point of the earlier lectures. The same holds true for the people. The classical theorists are not in the key terms, but you will also be responsible for the following key names:August Comte- coined the term sociology; believed we could take the natural world and apply it to the social world; positivism; Harriet Martineau first sociologist; introduced qualitative methods; “what holds us together”; argued there are morals, virtues, principals and values; sympathetic understanding; first sociological methods book; Emile Durkheim- first to agree with Comte; founder of functionalism; how do we maintain socialorder?; argued that we have ties or bonds to society; collective consciousness, we want to feel attachments to society; watched and participated in commemorative sites in different countries;integrate people to maintain solidarity; studied suicide and wanted to know why people committed it; came to conclusion that levels of integration and regulation contributed to suiciderates depending on the country; we are glued together by belief systems; society is a whole, shouldn’t be studied through just individuals; social facts; discovery of the social basis for human behaviorKarl Marx- philosopher, not sociologist; creator of communism; believed that it is not ideas that are important but the materialistic needs of people; critic of capitalism; argued that capitalistic societies would begin to accept socialist policies; false consciousness; how capitalism shaped society; argued that capitalism is an economic system based on the pursuit of profit and the sanctity of private property; Max Weber- critiques Marx’s work; conflict theory; you have to be subjective to topics; rationalization, more formal, more legal, more predictable societies; believed this would lead to iron cage of rationalization;3 dimensions: political, economic, and cultural; verstehen; understand the meaning of behavior; social actionJane Addams- settlement movement leader who provided services for slum dwellers, immigrants, and other poor people; nobel peace prize for this Ida Wells Barnett- struggle against Jim Crow laws; anti-lynching campaign; dedicated to education for US especially minority studentsW. E. B. DuBois- first African American to get PhD; starts his own sociology department in Atlanta where he does research on race relations in US; double consciousness (being aware of how others see you); Niagra Movement; NAACP came from this movement; news editor for NAACPRobert Merton- further developed functionalism; human behavior has both manifest and latent functions; C. Wright Mills- considered a communist; the sociological imagination; task of society was to understand the relationship between individuals and the society in which they live; sociology should be used to reveal how the context of society shapes our lives; Issues vs troubles; most personal troubles have their origins in societal arrangements (alcohol abuse)What contribution did each make in the establishment or growth of sociology? What are some of the key terms associated with each? How did the Enlightenment impact the early scientists? Who is connected to what perspective—functionalism, Conflict, or symbolic interactionist (see tables 1.2 and 1.3, lecture notes, and the elaboration of the three perspectives below)?You should study chapter two in the same comprehensive way. Don’t just memorize the definition of each key term, but connect the concepts with the early theorists and the perspective held by each (see an elaboration of the perspectives below). How does each of the three perspectives provide a better understanding of the concepts? There are no key names in chapter two. We are conceptualizing the social world in these first five chapters. Start trying to “connect the dots.” Below, you will find reviews for each of the readings you are responsible for.I have provided a summary of reading two. Review that reading if you would like, but what you need to know is in the summary. If you were in class, you should have a good understanding of what you need to know about the other three. This is simply a review of those points.Review for Readings one, two, three, and four.Reading one:What is the promise?-Sociological imagination enables us to grasp the relations between history and biography within societyWhy is understanding history so important in developing a sociological imagination?-History is part of the relationship that helps an individual realize the meaning of societyMills makes a distinction between Personal Troubles and Public Issues. What are the differencesand how is structure implicated?-Troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others; a private matter; values cherished by an individual are felt by him to be threatened-Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his inner life; organization of many into the institutions of a historical society as a whole; public matter-Structure is implicated when things are happening in larger ratios; to confront them and solve structural issues requires us to consider political and economic issues that affect innumerable milieuHow does the sociological imagination alleviate the feeling of being “trapped” in the modern world?-Enables one to understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals-Able to realize the cultural meaningsFinally, Mills argues, “the major issues for publics and the key troubles of private individuals” is the threat to cherished values which leads to feelings of either well-being, crisis, or even anxietyand panic. How


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