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O-K-State ARCH 2003 - Ancient Rome

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ARCH 2003 1st Edition Lecture 7Ancient RomeI. The Romans A. Beginning of Roman Civilization 1. Contemporary with that of the Greeks 2. Unlike the Greeks and the Egyptians, Rome continued to grow in importance asthe first millennium BCE waned 3. The empire had a remarkable homogeneous architectural style 4. Ancient Romans were certainly materialistic but very practical II. Building Techniques and Materials A. Roman Construction 1. Exploited structural elements that acted in compression a. Arch-a curved element that spans an opening and supports the structural loads above it. Most often arches are made of small wedge shaped masonryelements called voussoirs; the profile of an arch may vary from semicircular to point to almost flat b. Vault- an arched ceiling or roof of brick or stone c. Dome- a rounded vault 2. A true arch consists of voussoirs set in a curved shape often a semicircle a. Building one requires a temporary timber framework or centering to supportthe voussoir b. Keystone- central voussoir 3. Aqueducts- a pipe for conducting water under gravity flow, often applied to thearched structure built to support the pipe across valleys B. Upper Portion of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia In Praeneste near Rome1. A dramatic example of Roman construction from the time of Vitruvius’schildhood and one strongly influence by Hellenistic Greek practices a. Hellenistic Greeks used stoas, bent and folded stoas, gateways, terraces, andstairs2. Opus Incertum - Roman walls built of irregularly shaped stones facing a concrete 3. Hemicycles- a semicircle room or recess 4. Barrel vaulted – a semicircular vault over a rectangle space 5. Forum – in Roman towns the open space near the center used for commerce andcivic lifeC. Nîmes 1. Temple of Diana 2. Uses a distinctive barrel vault of ashlar, or cut stone, masonry tocreate its principal interior space 3. Hydraulic Cement- derived from volcanic deposits first discovered aroundPuteoli and named the pozzolana4. Opus reticulatum- a Roman wall formed of pyramidal stones, theirpoints set inwards and their square heads set form to a diagonal grid 2. Opus Testaceum- Roman walls constructed of brick facing a concrete core 3. Opus Listatum- Roman walls constructed of stone and brick in alternate courses III. City planning A.Pompeii 1. One of the best preserved examples of a Roman provincial town owing to itsburial in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 2. Founded by the Greeks in the sixth century BCE 3. At its time of destruction it had 20,000 people 4. Streets ran approximately parallel and perpendicular to the forum 5. Public facilities dispersed around the town, within the town walls there were three baths, a large exercise facility – the paleastra with a swimming pool, covered and open air theaters, and an amphitheater capable of seating the entire population 6. 9 temples dedicated to carious gods 7. Triumphal arch- a gateway structure with one or three arched openings built tocelebrate the return of a conquering army 8. Basilica- “kings hall” rectangular building that has a central with a higher roof flanked by lower aisles on both long sides, a semicircular projection, the apse set at one or both of the shorter


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