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ECU PSYC 2777 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 2777 1st Edition Exam #1 Study GuideChapter 1: Understanding Cross-Cultural PsychologyWhat’s the difference between race, ethnicity, and nationality?- Race- Group of people with similar physical characteristics rooted in genes- Ethnicity- Culture heritage- Nationality- Whatever nation you are considered ofWhat does it mean to say that a person has a particular religious affiliation?- Religious affiliation- Acceptance of knowledge, belief, and practices of a particular faithPower distance.- Distance of people with power and without powerIndividualism and collectivism- Individualism- Favoring self or immediate family over other groups or society- Collectivism- More concern about others/ shared traditions and valuesTraditional and nontraditional- Traditional- Rooted in the pasto Practices, beliefs, and rules have been around for a long time- Nontraditional- Based on new ideas, methods, and discoveriesEthnocentrism and multiculturalism- Ethnocentrism- Judging other cultures by norms of one’s own culture- Multiculturalism- Promotion of equal rights for ethic/ religious groups within a country Evolutionary perspective- The primary goal being survival and reproductionColder vs. warmer climates in countries- People in colder areas have more wealth - If in extreme cold, there are a lot more risks due to scarce resourcesChapter 2: Research MethodsFocus-group research method- Used in academic and marketing research- Small group (7-10 people)- People respond to specific messagesNaturalistic observation and laboratory observation- Naturalistic- In natural environment (real life)- Laboratory- In lab, controlled settingSurvey research methods- Survey is most commonly used method- Ask questions to participants- Direct survey- interviewer present, in-person or on phone- Indirect survey- Mail or onlinePsychobiographical research- In-depth look at a person thought to represent a culture- EX: Thomas Jefferson (rep. of US cause he found it)Correlations (positive and negative), 3rd variable problem- Correlation- Used to discover relationships between factors- Positive correlation- Both increase together- Negative correlation- As one factor increases, the other decreases- 3rd variable problem- Some other factors might have caused changes in bothRandom sample, systematic sample, and convenience sample- Random- Any country/group has equal chance of being selected- Systematic- Intentional selection of very different cultures- Convenience- Collaborate with existing contacts Mode, median, and mean- Mode- Most common number- Median- Middle point of scores- Mean- Mathematical average of scores Independent and dependent variables- IV- Manipulated factor- DV- Measured outcomeAbsolutist and relativist approaches- Absolutist approach- Psych phenomena similar in all cultureso Use standards of one culture to study processes in others- Relativist approach- Behavior can only be understood in cultural contextChapter 3: Critical ThinkingPost-hoc error- Belief that if one event follows another, the first must have cause the secondAvailability heuristic- Belief based on availability of relevant instances in memoryBidirectional causation- Cycles of behaviors - EX: low self-esteem friendliness more friends higher self-esteem Barnum statement- People tend to believe these are true of themselves or others - “Something for everyone”Belief Perseverance Effect- Because people have a love of being right, and hate being alone, this causes people to cling to their beliefs even when confronted with contradictory evidence Language has an Evaluative Bias- Is the word the person saying good or bad?- EX: persuasive (good) vs. manipulative (bad)Assimilation and accommodation- Assimilation- Fit evidence into existing belief structure- Accommodation- Change belief to fit evidenceHeuristic- Mental shortcuts- Useful with making unimportant decisions or decisions in a hurry- Sometimes accurate, but not alwaysFundamental attribution error- More likely to favor one type of attribution than the other- EX: westerners likely to favor internal attribution because of their free willMetathinking- Thinking about thinkingSelf-fulfilling prophecy- What people believe about others is what they expect their behavior to beDichotomous and continuous variables- Dichotomous- “Either-or” variables - Continuous- Many possible middle pointsNaturalistic fallacy- Belief that if something IS a certain way, that’s how it OUGHT to


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