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UofL BIOL 240 - Metabolism and Its Components

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BIOL 240 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. OverviewII. PhospholipidsIII. Types of Phospholipid TailsIV. CholesterolV. Membrane Proteinsa. Integral vs. Peripheral ProteinsVI. Synthesis and Sidedness of MembranesVII. The Permeability of the Lipid BilayerVIII. Transport Proteinsa. Carrier proteinsb. SpecificityIX. DiffusionX. OsmosisXI. Tonicitya. Animal Cellb. Plant CellXII. Facilitated DiffusionXIII. Active Transporta. The sodium-potassium pumpXIV. Bulk Transporta. Exocytosisb. EndocytosisXV. Cell SignalingOutline of Current Lecture I. Metabolisma. Catabolic pathwayb. Anabolic pathwayII. Forms of Energya. ThermodynamicsIII. Free Energy Change of ReactionIV. Cellular WorkV. ATPVI. Activation EnergyVII. EnzymesVIII. Active SiteThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.IX. Regulation of MetabolismX. Feedback InhibitionCurrent LectureXI. Metabolisma. All of an organism’s chemical reactionsb. Metabolic pathwayc. Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzymed. Catabolic pathwayi. Polymers to monomersii. Cellular respiratione. Anabolic pathwaysi. Monomers to polymersii. Protein synthesisf. Energy usageXII. Forms of Energya. Energy is the capacity to cause changeb. Exists in various formsi. Kinetic: motionii. Chemical: reactionc. Thermodynamicsi. The first law of thermodynamics1. Energy of the universe is constant2. Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyedii. The second law of thermodynamics1. During every energy transfer, some energy is lost as heat2. EntropyXIII. Free Energy Change of Reactiona. Free energyb. Spontaneous reactions don’t require energy inputc. Negative delta G = spontaneousd. Can be applied to the Chemistry of Life’s processese. Exergonic reaction: energy is not neededf. Endergonic reaction: energy is requiredXIV. Cellular Worka. A cell does three main kinds of worki. Mechanical: movementii. Transport: moving across membraneiii. Chemicalb. Uses energy couplingc. Mediated by ATPXV. ATPa. Composed of ribose, adenine, and the phosphate groupsXVI. Activation Energya. A “push” of energy to start the reactionb. Enzyme: decreases activation energy; increase rate of reactionXVII. Enzymesa. Substrate: binds to enzymeb. Active site: where enzymes and substrates bindc. Enzyme specificityd. Changed by environmental conditionsXVIII. Active Sitea. Lowering an activation energy by:i. Orienting substrates correctlyii. Straining substrate bondsiii. Covalently bonding to the substrateXIX. Regulation of Metabolisma. Normal binding: substrate  active site  enzymeb. Competitive inhibition: substrate is replaced by a competitive inhibitor binding tothe active sitec. Noncompetitive (allosteric) inhibition: noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the allosteric site which changes the shape of the active site so the substrate cannot bindXX. Feedback Inhibitiona. Wants to stop reactionb. Final product binds allosteric-ally to the initial


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