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GEOLOGY 101 - WilkieExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1:Origin of the Universe:- Big Bang Theory: All matter and energy was compacted into a single dense point.o Red Shift: This is the occurrence when stars move away from one another and from other objects in space- Nebular Hypothesis:o The hydrogen of space clumped together to form balls and in turn formed first generation stars.o Nebula: An area of space dominated by cosmic dust and gases.o Fusion: The process of combining elements.o Supernova: Described as a violent star death.Lecture 2: - How was the earth formed?o Inner planet was rocky, not frozen and is approx. 4.53-4.57 billion years old.o Created through colliding chunks of matter, attracted through gravity.o The energy of the motion was converted into heat through the process known as differentiation. Differentiation: Heat caused the earth to melt and separate into layers of different densities. - How was the moon formed?o A planet the size of Mars collided with Eartho This contact sent out debris into space  Earth’s gravity held pieces which rotated and formed together to create the moon as we know it today.- Continents: Rising, solidifying light rock cooling.- Oceans/Atmosphere:o Bombarded by comets (frozen gases)o Volatiles released by volcanism.- Heat Sources (External Vs. Internal)Lecture 3: [Crust, Mantle, Core]- Includes: Upper and Lower Mantle, Athenosphere, Lithosphere etc.Plate Tectonic Theory:- Alfred Wegner (1915):o Creator of the Continental Drift Hypothesis (Pangea) Continents, Animals, Fossil Evidence, Rock Variants- Boundaries:o Divergent: These boundaries occur when plates move away from each other.o Convergent: These boundaries occur when plates move together.o Transform: These boundaries occur when plates move laterally next to each other.o Hot Spot: This is a stationary thermal plume burning beneath the crust that pushes up and out.Lecture 4: - Divergent Boundaries: (tension)o Plates move away in the process of rifting. Rift: A crack-like valley which allows molten rock to erupt from below. Sea Floor Spreading: New oceanic lithosphere EX: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California)o Decompression Melting: As hot mantle material rises, the drop in pressure results in melting rocks.- Convergent Boundaries:o A region where two tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.o 3 types of Convergent boundaries:1. Continental – Oceanic Convergencea. Includes a deep sea trench (the contact spot), the subduction zone (the flux-melting), and an accretionary prism (scraped sediments)b. EX: Cascade Mtns., Andes Mtns., Aleutian Islands2. Oceanic – Oceanic Convergencea. EX: Japan, Philippines3. Continental – Continental Convergencea. No subduction zones, no volcanoesb. EX: Active – Himalayas Mtns.; Ancient – Appalachian Mtns. Lecture 5: - Transform Boundaries:o Plates shifting past one another laterally, causing earthquakes. (Sheer Stress)o Volcanoes can be present (little crust is created and destroyed).o This boundary allows plates to slide past one another while moving at different velocities. (Strike-Slip Fault) Fault: Fracture in the crust along which there has been movement.- Hot Spots:o Stationary, surface expression of volcanic activity.o Result of a thermal mantle plume, a localized source of rising heat energy form the mantle-core (?) boundary.o So hot and intense that it will burn holes into the plate and erupt at the surface. THINK: VolcanoesLecture 6: What is a mineral?1. Must be naturally occurring2. Inorganic: NO organic carbon3. Crystalline solid – atoms are arranged in a particular structure (ex: a cube)4. Specific chemical compound – contains particular elements in a set ratio- How are minerals formed?o Crystallization: The growth of a solid from a gas or liquid whose constituents come together in the proper chemical proportions and crystalline arrangement.o Metamorphism:  High heat and pressure allows different minerals to form while still in the solid state (nothing melts) Garnets and other metamorphic minerals form Diffusion: The slow movement of atoms due to thermal energy (heat).o Minerals form when atoms transfer or share electrons to fill there electron shells.(Chemical Bonding) Chemical Bonding: atoms combine by losing, gaining or sharing electrons. Ionic Bonding: transfer of electrons.- Forms when shells are nearly empty or nearly full.- Weak Bond Covalent Bonding: sharing of electrons.- Forms when shells are about half full.- Strong Bondo Polymorphs (same composition but different crystal structure)- Atoms:o Compound of a nucleuso Electrons Vs. Protons Vs. Neutronso Atomic Number/ Masso Isotopes THINK: Carbon 12 Vs. Carbon 13Lecture 7: Mineral Properties:- Color- Luster: (Metallic Vs. Non-Metallic)- Streak: (Color of powdered mineral)- Cleavage: (Breakage along planes of weakness)Special Properties of Select Minerals:- Smell and Taste:- Fluorescence:- Magnetism:- Effervescence: (reacts with HCl)- Double Refraction:Mineral Groups:- Silicates:o Most abundant mineral group in the crust.o Dominate all three rock types- Non-Silicates:o Carbonates, Oxides, Sulfides, Sulfates, Native Elements- Asbestos:o Asbestos is the commercial definition (for Federal regulation purposes) for minerals that are flexible, chemically and thermally resistant and can be woven.o Fibrous Crystal FormLecture 8:Gems:- Beauty: How light reflects by luster and color.- Transparency- Brilliance: Enhanced by cutting and polishing.- Durability: Based on hardness (harder than quartz)- Rarity or perceived rarity.Diamonds:o Polymorph of carbon along with graphite; Formed in the mantle. Brought to the surface through kimberlite pipeso Most are believed to be very old (most about 3 billion years old)o Uses: gems, cutting and polishingo Diamonds only exist on the surface because they were brought up fast; if they were to equilibrate on the way to the surface, the stable form of carbon would be graphite.- 3 Major Rock Types:1) Igneous: formed by the solidification of molten rock or melt2) Sedimentary: formed by wither cementing together fragments of pre-existing rocks or by precipitation of mineral crystals our of water solutions at or near the earth surface.3) Metamorphic: formed when pre-existing rocks change character in the solid state as a response to a change in pressure and temperature conditions (does not require melting).Lecture 9:Why


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