New version page

UI CCL 1110 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Type: Study Guide
Pages: 6

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 6 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

CHEM 1110 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Lecture 1 (January 31)Nothing really here. Just an introduction to the syllabus and about textbooks and materials needed for the class.Lecture 2 (January 23) Basic Definitions:o Chemistry-the study of matter, its properties, and the changes that matter undergoeso Matter- the physical material of the universe o Atom- the building block of mattero Element- the unique types of atomso Molecule-combination of atoms joined together by chemical bondso Property- any characteristic that lets us recognize and distinguish matterMemorize these measurementso Giga G 10^9 1x10^9o Mega M 10^6 1x10^6o Kilo k 10^3 1x10^3o Centi c 10^-2 1x10^-2o Milli m 10^-3 1x10^-3o Nano n 10^-9 1x10^-9o Pico p 10^-12 1x10^-12And these formulas for temperature o F=1.8C+32o C=.56(F-32)o K=273.15+CRules for significant figures Rules for significant determining if a digit is significant or not:o All digits are significant except zeros that are used only to position thedecimal pointo Zeros between zeros are significant figureso Zeros at the end of a number are significant if they have a decimal Addition and subtraction:o Final answer depends on the number of significant figures after the decimalo Example: 14.3505+2.65=17.0005, but since there are only two places behind one number, it has to be rounded to 17.00 Multiplication and division:o Final answer depends on the number with the fewest amount of significant figureso Example: 3.29x.2501=.822829, but since there are 3 significant figuresin one of the numbers, the final answer becomes .823Roundinga. Rules for rounding off numbersi. If the digit to be removed >5, increase preceding number by 1ii. If the digit to be removed <5, proceeding number is unchangediii. If the digit to be removed =5,1. If only zeros following number, round to even (17.5 to 18)2. If only nonzero numbers following, increase by 1 (18.50001 to 19)Lecture 3 (January 26)YOU WILL BE ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENT CHEMISTS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS!!Some Important People- Empedocles (495-435 BC)o Said that there were four fundamental substances: air, earth, fire, water- Democritus (460-370 BC)o Matter is particulate o Atom from Greek word atomos=indivisible- John Dalton (1766-1844)o Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1803-1807) This theory was a major advancement in what today’s atom looks likeo His theory stated that:o 1. All matter consists of tiny indivisible atomso 2. Atoms of an element are identical, but different from other elementso 3. Atoms of one element cannot be converted into another elemento 4. Compounds result from chemical combinations of different elements- JJ Thompson (1856-1940)o Further experimented with cathode rayso Discovered electrons- Robert Milikan (1868-1953)o “Oil drop” experimento Caused oil drops to become charged and observed behavior, led to charge of electron (1.602x10^-19)o Computed electron mass (9.1x10^-28)- Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)o Discovered the nature of radioactivityo Explained the phenomenon of radioactivity discovered by Becquerel in 1896 (emission from uranium compounds)o Alpha rays, gamma rays, beta raysExperiments/Laws- Three Classical laws (hint: these might be on an exam)o 1. Law of conservation of mass Can’t make or destroy mattero 2. Law of constant composition In a given compound, relative numbers and atoms are constanto 3. Law of multiple proportions ratio of mass must be integers/whole numbers; atoms go together in individual units- Experiments with cathode rayso Cathode rays are independent of the electrode materialo Cathode rays are streams of negatively charged particles- Thomson’s “Plum Pudding” modelo We can think of this like a chocolate chip cookie with an evenly distributed mass and positive charge (cookie as an entirety), and smallembedded negative particles (the chocolate chips)- Gold Foil Experimento Disproved plum pudding modelo Studies angles of alpha particles that were scattered after passing through thin gold foil- Rutherford’s Nuclear Atomo Small, very dense, positive nucleuso Surrounded by negative electronso Thomson discovered electronso Rutherford discovered protonso Chadwick discovered neutronsLecture 4 (January 28)i. Group 1A-Alkali metalsii. Group 2A-Alkali earth metalsiii. Group 6A-Chalcogensiv. Group 7A-Halogensv. Group 8A-Noble gasesvi. Metals with only one type of ion1. Groups 1A and 2A, Al, Zn, Ag2. Ex. NaCl (sodium chloride) CaO (calcium oxide)3. Metal name + Nonmetal name with –ide suffixvii. Metals with two or more types of different ions1. Most metals except groups 1A and 2A2. Ex. CuCl (copper(I) chloride), FeO (iron(II) oxide)3. Metal name (oxidation state as Roman numeral in parenthesis) + nonmetal name with –ide suffixviii. Hydrates- compounds whose crystals contain discrete water molecules1. Ex. CuSO4*5H2O copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate2. Name as other ionic compounds except add prefix + hydrate as a third wordWhen writing molecular equations, use these prefixes (memorize these)1. Mono2. Di3. Tri4. Tetra5. Penta6. Hexa7. Hepta8. Octa9. NonaLecture 5 (January 30)Steps to writing a balanced chemical equationi. Balance equations that occur in only one other speciesii. Continue until all elements are atomically balanced1. Typically oxygen and hydrogen are the last ones balancediii. Convert coefficients to smallest integer ratio (no fractions)iv. Verify equal atom counts1. Total number and type of atoms on left side = type and number of atoms on right sideAvogadro’s number=6.022*10^23ATOMIC MASS AND MOLAR MASS ARE THE SAME THING!!Lecture 6 (February 2)If you see the word combustion, think of it automatically as a reaction that MUST produce carbon dioxide and waterLecture 7 (February 4)a. Theoretical yield- the maximum possible yield of product, predicted by the balanced equation and reactant limitationsi. In carrying out a reaction, chemists rarely obtain as much product as predicted by the theoretical yieldii. Percent yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 1001. Actual and theoretical values are most often masses, but this equation works for moles as wellLecture 8 (February 6)Pretty much it is important here to know the solubility and insolubility rulesI. Precipitation Reactionsa. A reaction that yields an insoluble solid productb. Precipitate- insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solutionII. Rules for Ionic Compounds in Watera. 1. Alkali metal ions and ammonium are solubleb. 2. Common nitrates and acetates


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?