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UNC-Chapel Hill CHIN 252 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam #1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8 Econ 101 1st Edition Lecture 13rd millennium BCE: AGE OF THE SAGE-KINGS Yao, Shun, and Yu (legendary)Xia dynasty (legendary)Shang (Yin) Dynasty (c. 1600-1045)Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 256)Qin dynasty (331 - 207)Han dynasty (106 BCE -220 CE)Idiom Stories: San Ren Cheng Hu (三三三三三This story took place during the reign of Wei Hui-Wang (魏魏魏), aka ( Liang Hui-wang 魏魏魏魏o Theme: Rumors can cover up the truth sometimesYi Gu Zuo Qi (三三三三)● the state of Qi sent troops to attack the state of Lu. Lu zhuang-gong and Cao Gui took forces to resist the attackers. Cao Gui said, “ in warfare, everything depends upon courage, the soldiers’ courage decrease as the drum sounded.” So Cao Cui waited to attack Qi forces after Qi had sounded their drum three times. As a result, State of Lu won.● Moral: to express the idea that when one does something, one should take advantage ofa moment when one’s spirits are at their highest and one’s mood is at its exuberant to do it all at once.Existing hypotheses for the origin of “Chinese” civilization: proposed by K.C. Chang● The Nuclear Area Thesis○ “cradle of Chinese civilization” in Yellow River valley● The “Interactive Spheres” Thesis (revision)○ several regional neolithic and bronze-age cultures converge through tradeand the transfer of culture and technology○ cultural convergence, 4000 - 3000 BCERacial Diversity:● Sinodonts vs. Sundadonts (teeth patterns)○ Sinodonts: Shovel incisors // common with some Native American groups,North China today (upper 1st premolar has one root, and lower 1st molar has three roots)○ Sundadonts: South China, Caucasians, Filipinos, Malays.. (upper 1st premolar has two roots, lower first molar has two roots)Neolithic Age ( ~8000 BCE)● distinguished by pottery, often associated with agriculture and fixed human settlementsBronze Age (~3000 BCE)● prevalent use of bronze; highly organized, complex societiesIron Age (~600 BCE)Lecture 2:Traditions concerning Yao, Shun and YuYao:Laissez-faire method of governmentFour word idioms “ beat-belly-and-sing” or “ strike-earth-and-sing”: describe conditions of untroubled prosperity associated with the reign of Yao.● The song behind the idiom: “ The sun rises and I work; The sun sets and I rest. I drill wells and drink; I plough the earth and eat’ What was the ruler’s might to dowith me?Shun: Yao appointed him his successor due to Shun’s filial behaviors● Parents and his brother (xiang魏tried to kill Shun twice ( by burning granary, by burying him alive in a well)Yu:aka “Yu the Great”known for preventing floodXia RulersYu the GreatQiTai-kangZhong-kang (puppet ruler by Hou Yi)Xiang (puppet ruler by Hou Yi; killed by Han Zhou)38 yr break: 2118 - 2080Shao-Kang (orphaned ruler being restored)-ten more rulers-JieShao Kang Restoration StoryQi’s son and successor Tai-kangHou Yi usurped the throneZhong-kang, one of Tai-kang’s brothers, became Hou Yi’s puppet rulerAfter Zhong-kang died Hou Yi set up Xiang, the son of Zhong-kang, as the next puppet ruler.Han Zhuo seized powerKilled the whole Xia clan (except Xiang’s pregnant queen)Mi, Xiang’s court officerMi and Shao Kang overthrow Han zhuo and restore the XiaLecture 3● Oracle Bones: inscribed turtle plastrons and ox scapula■ earliest recorded history in China● Ox scapula bones were used for divination and inscribed with OBIs● Early forms of the graph ce 魏魏魏 ‘document’ seems to indicate that writing on bamboo strips was already in use● Word written in ink on OBI also seems to indicate that ink and brush were used as writing tools.● Shang was the first dynasty with attested writingShamanism● Shaman● animal motifs● spiritual travel to different realms● embodied in the form of powerful animals ● circumpolar religious practiceThree Sage Seeking Stories Sages● Cheng Tang and Yi Yin○ discovered Yi Yin who was a cook at his house○ according to Mencius, Yi Yin was a farmer instead of a cook● Wu Ding and Fu Yue○ Shamanistic ways (discovering Fu Yue through dreams)● King Wen of Zhou and Jiang Tai-gong○ Wen Wang recognized Jiang Tai-gong by seeing him fishing without a hookCommon Characteristics of Sages (prime ministers):● Of humble background (or pretends to be of humble background)o Fishermano Farmero Cooko Slave laborer building rammed earth walls● Keenly insightful, almost superhuman ability to see through people and understand complex situations● Why do they hide?o Because they are waiting for a king who can recognize them, and also they don’t want to serve any random kings or simply get involved politically● Sages in the Daodejingo Wear rough clothes and keep the polished jade in the heart ( DDJ, chapter 70) Jade symbolizes the virtues and wisdoms of the sageLecture 4Zhou Dynasty (1045 – 256/221BCE)Western Zhou (1045 –771 BCE)● Capital in West, near Xi’anEastern Zhou (771-256 BCE)● Capital in East, near LuoyangSpring and Autumn Period (770-481 BCE)Warring States period (481-221 BCE)Traditions Concerning Pre-dynastic ZhouPre-dynasty Zhou· Di Ku (a legendary prehistoric ruler)● Both Shang and Xia dynasty descend from Di Ku· Hou Ji (Qi, abandoned) (his mom step into a giant foot print and then become pregnant with him/ His mom tried to abandon him, but was never able to get rid of him)● Very first king in the line of Zhou· Bu-Ku● Mingled with the tribes of the Rong and di· Gong Liu● he lived among the Rong and the Di, revived the enterprises of Hou ji· Gu-gong Dan-fu● Gu gong: ancient chief● In Mengzi, this figure is called Tai-wang, “the great king”● Cultivated virtue● yielded and moved when attacked by the Rong and the Di tribes● Left Bin and settled at Mount Qi● Had three sons§ Tai-bo§ Yu-zhong§ Ji-li (aka Gong ji) (Gugong dan fu wants ji-li to become the king)(Both Tai-bo and Yu-zhong yield the throne)· Chang● o Aka Xi bo; King Wen● o Xi bo à King Wen● o “awe-inspiringly splendid king”● o skip meals to treat visitors well● o bo yi and shu qi are attracted to King Wen’s virtue● o imprisoned by King ZHOU (魏魏) 魏last king of Shang dynasty)§ “It seems that xi bo is the one who has the mandate”Traditions concerning the Western Zhouo King wu (aka Fa, his given name) (he’s the son of KING WEN)o Dan, the duke of Zhou, was the


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