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Psyc 222 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 & Lecture 2 (January 21,& 23)Key Points• General principles of psychoactive drugs1. Use is not abuse.2. Every drug has multiple effects.3. Amount matters.4. Psychoactive drug effects are powerfully influenced by the user’s history andexpectations. 5. Drugs, per se, are not good or bad.• Data indicate that if the perception of risk of drug use is low, then rates of use are higher, andvice versa. Perception of risk differs from perception of availability.• Drug use is influenced by several factors including race, gender, and level of education.• Drug use in early adolescence may be indicative of a larger pattern of deviant behaviors.Lecture 5 (January 30)Key Points• Homeostasis is mediated by the release of endogenous regulatory chemicals such asneurotransmitters and hormones. Many drugs affect these substances and change thefunction of the nervous or endocrine system.• There are two main types of cells in the nervous system: glia and neurons. • Glial cells make up the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from toxic chemicals inthe blood.• All nervous systems consist of neurons, which are comprised of cell bodies, dendrites,axons, and axon terminals.• Neurons are the basic structural unit of the nervous system that is responsible for analyzing andtransmitting information. There are more the 100 billion neurons in the nervous system.• The gap between neurons is called the synapse.• Some specific drugs and natural neurotransmitters can activate the same receptors.• Communication is accomplished through the action potential. The electrical signal is transmittedalong a neuron’s axon. Neurotransmitters are released so the communication can happen fromone neuron to the other.• Drugs and neurotransmitters can have either an agonist or antagonist effect on receptors.Agonist drugs interact with the receptor and produce a response, whereas antagonist drugsinteract with the receptor but prevent a response.• Selective blocking of some channels prevents the communication between the neurons. Anexample of this would be from using cocaine or other local anesthetics.• The somatic nervous system carries sensory information from outside the body into the CNS andcarries motor information out to the periphery.• The autonomic nervous system (ANS) cell bodies are located within the brain or spinal cord buttheir axons project outside the CNS to involuntary muscles.• The ANS is divided into two components that oppose each other: the sympathetic branch andthe parasympathetic branch.• The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord.• The cerebral cortex receives sensory input, interprets visual information, and processes auditoryinformation. Reasoning and language also occur in the cerebral cortex.• The basal ganglia are the primary centers for involuntary movement and are hidden fromexternal view underneath the cerebral cortex.• The hypothalamus integrates information from many sources and is the control center for theautonomic nervous system.• The hypothalamus is a small structure near the base of the brain that is involved in sex drive,hunger, body temperature, and others functions.• The limbic system regulates emotional activities, memory, and modulation of basic hypothalamicfunctions, mating, procreation, and caring for young.Lecture 6 (February 2)Key Points• The neurotransmitters most associated with psychoactive drugs are dopamine, acetylcholine,norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate, and endorphins. • Precursors are the building blocks of neurotransmitters; they are found circulating in the blood. • After they are synthesized, neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles waiting to be released. • One way neurotransmitters molecules are removed from the synapse is that some moleculeshave specific transporters built into their terminals; this brings the neurotransmitter moleculesback into the releasing neuron. Many neurotransmitters have associated enzymes in thesynapse that metabolize molecules.• In a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, a radioactively labeled chemical is injected in thebloodstream and then a computer tracks it as it flows through the brain.• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses strong magnetic fields and measures the energy comingfrom molecules as the field is collapsed.• fMRI can be used to evaluate brain activity in real time, e.g., while a person is performing acognitive task. • In doing imaging studies, we must be careful to examine the behavior of interest so as not todraw inappropriate conclusions about the neural basis of cognition.Lecture 7 (February 4)Key Points• Many drugs come directly from plants or are chemically derived from plant substances.• In the United States, sales of legal pharmaceuticals exceed $290 billion per year.• All commercially available drugs have at least three categories of names. The chemical name isthe complete chemical description of the molecule. The generic name of a drug is the legal nameof the drug, usually a simpler version of the chemical name. The brand name is for a specificformulation and manufacturer. The big difference between the generic name and the brandname is that a generic name is public domain while a brand name is trademarked by thecompany that developed the drug. The developing company gets to name the drug but it mustbe approved FDA.• Categories of psychoactive drugs are stimulants, hallucinogens, marijuana, depressants, opioids,psychotherapeutics, and nicotine. Each drug has defining characteristics that separate it fromothers.• The Physician’s Desk Reference has color photographs of most legally manufactured drugs; it alsoincludes information like dose and potency.• The placebo effect is usually thought of in terms of an inactive (“sugar”) pill.• Many drugs effects are influenced by the user’s experiences, mood, expectations, and factorssuch as what food and other drugs she or he has consumed.• The dose-response relationship refers to the correlation between the quantity of drugadministered and the size of the effect. The response may vary due to factors such as tolerance.• Dose-response curves help provide information on effective and lethal doses.• Toxicity, in animal studies, is measured in how many


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