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SU PSY 322 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 322 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 13Chapter 1 Introduction to Cognitive PsychologyOutline:I. Studying the MindII. First Cognitive Psychologists1) Donders2) Helmholtz3) Ebbinghaus4) James5) Wundt6) Watson7) Skinner8) Tolman9) ChomskyIII. Rise of StructuralismIV. Fall of Structuralism / Rise of BehaviorismV. Decline of BehaviorismVI. Reemergence of the MindPractice Questions:1. What is cognitive psychology?2. What is the mind?3.What are the Reaction-Time experiments and which cognitive psychologist performed them? What are the two types of tasks that participants would perform during the RT experiments and what was the result of this psychologist’s work?4. What is unconscious inference? 5. How did Ebbinghaus determine the forgetting curve?6. What did James contribute to attention?7. Who founded structuralism and what is it?8. What is analytic introspection?9. Why did John Watson believe structuralism was faulty?10. Describe the process of classical conditioning.11. What is operant conditioning and who introduced it?12. What led to the decline of behaviorism?13. How did Tolman begin the reemergence of the mind in psychology?14. Why did Chomsky suggest language is not learned through imitation or reinforcement?15. How does the mind act like a digital computer?16. Compare the two types of models.17. What are two reasons why cognitivism overcame behaviorism as the dominant force inpsychology in the mid-to-late 20th century?18. What is sensory memory?19. Compare episodic, semantic, and procedural memories.Answers:1. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind.2. The mind creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning. It creates representations of the world so that we can achieve our goals.3. Donders used the technique of mental chronometry to perform reaction-time experiments. Mental chronometry is the measuring of how long a cognitive process takes. Reaction-time experiments measure the interval between stimulus presentation and a person’s response. The two tasks were a simple RT task in which a participant would push a button when a light appeared and a choice RT task in which a participant would push a button for the light on the right side of the screen and push a different button for a light displayed on the left side of the screen. The result of this was that the time to make a decision was found by subtracting the simple RT time from the choice RT time. Thus, Donders found that decision-making takes one tenth of a second.4.Unconscious inference is the process in which some of our perceptions result from unconscious assumptions we make about our environment. These are based on expectations and experience. Basically, we infer much of what we know about the world.5. Ebbinghaus read a list of nonsense syllables aloud many times to determine the number of repetitions necessary to repeat the list without errors. At some time, he realized it took less time to relearn the list. 6. Wilhelm Wundt founded structuralism, the branch of psychology that believes our overallexperience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensation.7. James decided that in order to pay attention to one thing, one must withdraw attention from another.8. Participants were trained in analytic introspection to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli.9. John Watson noted two problems with structuralism:1) Results variated between people2) The results were difficult to verify through mental processes.10. Through classical conditioning, neutral stimulus is paired with an event that naturally produces an outcome. After repeated pairing, the neutral stimulus begins to evoke the event. From here, behaviorists realized behavior could be analyzed without any reference to the mind.11. Skinner discovered operant conditioning through his interest in the relationship between stimuli and a desired outcome. Operant conditioning involves shaping behaviorthrough reward (positive reinforcer – e.g. gold star) and punishment (negative reinforcer – e.g. social rejection).12. Controversy over language led to the decline of behaviorism.13. Tolman used behavior to infer mental processes.14. Chomsky suggested that language is an inborn biological program that is cross-cultural.15. Through the information-processing approach, our minds trace sequences of mental operations and “filter” out information (attended versus unattended).16.1) Structural models represent structures in the brain that are involved in specific functions.2) Process models illustrate how a process operates.17. There was controversy over the acquisition of language, in that, Chomsky argued children don't only learn language through imitation and reinforcement, but they have an inborn biological program and Tolman explained the behavior of rats in a maze through the creation of a cognitive map. Also, there was a shift from the relationship between stimulus and behavior to the inclusion of physiology and behavior. Lastly, the focus of the time emphasized the mind acting as a computer and evaluated it through the information processing approach.18. Sensory memory holds incoming information and passes it to short-term memory, then through rehearsal, it moves to long-term memory. Once it needs retrieval, it moves back to short-term memory and then is outputted.19. Episodic includes the events of your life; semantic contains facts; procedural holds physical actions.Ch. 2 Cognitive NeuroscienceOutline:I. Why Study Cognitive NeuroscienceII. NeuronsIII. Electrical SignalsIV. Representation by Single NeuronsV. Localization of FunctionVI. PerceptionVII. LanguageVIII. Brain ImagingKey Terms- Neurons – building block cells of the nervous system- Neuron doctrine – individual cells transmit signals in the nervous system; not continuous with other cells as previously thought- Nerve circuits – groups of interconnected neurons- Receptors – specialized neurons that pick up information from the environment; found in the eyes, ears, and skin- Principle of Neural Representation – experiences based not on direct contact with stimuli, but on representations in the nervous system- Hierarchal progression – moving from lower to higher areas of the brain - Specificity coding – object represented by firing specialized neurons that respond only to that objecto


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