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TAMU ANSC 303 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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ANSC 303 1st EditionExam# 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Lecture 1 (January 21)What is animal nutrition? Animal nutrition is the efficient conversion of feedstuff into high quality food for human consumption. Define average daily gain.How many pounds did you gain after x days? Lbs. gained/days. Why is animal nutrition so important? Animal nutrition is important because feed is the most expensive part of the cost of an animal; underfeeding causes an animal to underperform and overfeeding is wasteful (both money-wise and environmentally). Why do we need to look at other countries’ laws concerning feed additives when we feed our own animals? If a country has a high population, they will probably buy products from the US; however, if this country bans additive y, then we cannot feed additive y in order for them to buy products from us. Define: nutrient, diet, ration, and total mixed ration.Nutrient: chemical element of compound in diet that supports life processes. Diet: mixture of feedstuffs that supplies nutrients for the animal. Ration: the daily supply of feed for an animal. Total Mixed Ration (TMR): what an animal needs to meet its nutritional requirements. What are the seven nutrients?Water, protein (true and non-nitrogen protein), vitamin, lipid, carbohydrates, ash, and minerals. Which ones are organic?Protein (true and non-nitrogen protein), vitamin, lipid, and carbohydrates. Which ones are inorganic? Ash and minerals.Lecture 2 (January 23) Why do animals digest food?Food is digested because feed is ingested in a state that cannot be used by the body. What is a gathering apparatus and what are some examples?The gathering apparatus is how the animal takes in food. Mouth, teeth, jaws, and tongues are all examples of a gathering apparatus. What are the two types of digestive systems? Ruminant and monogastric.How do they differ? Ruminants have a compartmentalized stomachs while monogastric do not. Monogastricshave a larger variation within their category than ruminants. List the digestive organs in order from first to last. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. What can size tell you when you look at a digestive system of an animal?A ruminant animal will, of course, have a larger stomach than that of a monogastric. A ruminant will also have a small large intestine because they do not need to ferment food twice. A monogastric omnivore will have moderate size organs because they are good at everything, but great at nothing. Lecture 3 (January 26)What is the structure of a monogastric stomach? A monogastric stomach has a single, simple compartment. What are three examples of a monogastric?Some examples are: humans, pigs, and chickens. What is the fermentation ability of a monogastric? Monogastrics have a low fermentation ability because they do not have a specialized organ to ferment feed. What is the structure of a ruminant stomach?A ruminant stomach is comprised of four compartments; this allows for fermentation of feed.What are two examples of a ruminant?Cows and goats are two examples of ruminants. What kind of gastrointestinal system do horses and rabbits have? Rabbits and horses have a monogastric system, but they are hindgut fermenters. What is special about this specific type (what is different compared to other monogastric/ruminants)? Compared to ruminants, a hindgut fermenter does not have a complex stomach. Compared to monogastrics, hindgut fermenters have developed cecum near the end of the gastrointestinal tract which allows them to ferment feed.What type of diet would require a simple stomach, short intestinal tract, and no cecum? A tract without a cecum means that this animal will not be able to ferment products; therefore, the animal must be a strict omnivore. If an animal has a simple stomach, short intestine, and small cecum, what type of feed would this animal consume?This animal would most likely by an omnivore; they have a simple stomach which gives them the ability to digest protein, but they also contain a small cecum which gives them a small ability to ferment feed.Why are human gastrointestinal tracts said to be “good at everything, but great at nothing?” The stomach, intestines, and cecum/colon each comprise a third of the digestive tract. The organs size allows all of the organs to be good at everything. Because the system is lacking any large organs, the system is not able to specialize in any one thing. Describe the gastrointestinal system of a horse. The horse has a simple stomach, highly sacculated cecum, and short intestine.Define mastication. Mastication is the chewing of food. What is the purpose of mastication? When animals are feed, they are given something that they cannot use for digestion; they have to reduce the particle size in order to use the feed. A decrease in particle size also leads to an increase in surface area which allows for a larger area for enzymes and microbes to work. Who benefits the most from mastication? Monogastrics benefit the most from mastication. What are the differences in teeth structure between carnivores and herbivores? Carnivores have large canines and incisors which allow them to tear their food. Herbivores have specializes molars which allow them to chew and grind more. What is the purpose of saliva?Saliva lubricates feed in its travel from the esophagus to the stomach. In some species, saliva starts the digestive process. What is the pH of saliva?The pH of saliva s greater than 7. What is the benefit of a striated esophagus? A striated esophagus allows for regurgitation. What is the reticular groove and why is it important?The reticular groove is a channel that allows milk to pass from the esophagus to the abomasum. Milk should not be fermented, so the reticular groove allows the milk to bypass fermentation in the rumen. What is the biggest fork in the road between monogastrics and ruminants?The stomach.What are the four compartments of the ruminant stomach?The four compartments of the ruminant stomach are: the reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum. Define glandular and which organs in the monogastric and the ruminant are glandular?Glandular means that the organ is a secreting organ. The stomach and the abomasum are the two glandular stomachs. What are the functions of the glandular stomach?The glandular stomach mixes food, produces HCl and pepsinogen, and has limited absorption of aspirin and alcohol. Which stomach secretion is unique to the ruminant?Renin is specific


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