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UIUC MCB 100 - Chemistry of Microorganisms (cont.) and Microscopy, Staining, and Classification

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MCB 100 1st Edition Lecture 9 Outline of Last Lecture I. Amino acidsII. The folding of a protein to its final shape Outline of Current Lecture I. Sugars and polysaccharides II. Fatty acids and lipidsIII. Microscopy: simple vs. compound lens system Current LectureI. Sugars and polysaccharidesA. Simple sugars have the general formula (CH2O). A certain number of carbon atoms with an equal number of water molecules worth of hydrogen and oxygen. So, sugars are called carbohydrates. B. Glucose (dextrose) is an example of a small sugar, or monosaccharide with the formula C6H12O6C. Polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose are formed by linking together dozens or even hundreds of simple sugar unitsD. Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, ribose, glyceraldehydeE. Disaccharides: sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose (starch product), cellobiose (cellulose product) F. Sugars have many polar groups: hydroxyls and carbonyls--> this makes sugars very soluble in waterG. Sugars can be broken down (oxidized) to yield energyH. Sugars can be joined to each other by glycosidic bonds (formation of a glycosidic bond involves production of a water molecule)I. Polysaccharides can be sugars storage molecules (starch)J. Polysaccharides are important components of cell walls K. Polysaccharides can be slimy or sticky substances II. Fatty acids and lipids A. Phospholipid/phosphodiglyceride synthesis: (hydrophilic end)phosphate + glycerol + 2 fatty acids (hydrophobic end) B. Double bond: unsaturated; single bonds: saturated These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.C. A lipid bilayer membrane is formed from phospholipids (diglycerides)--> makes up allthe matrix of cell membranes; contains receptor proteins to turn on/off enzyme receptor sites (signal transduction) D. Sterols are lipids that are found in the membranes of eukaryotic cells E. Cholesterol is found in animal cell membranesF. Ergosterol is found in fungal cell membranesG. Phytosterol is found in plant membranes H. Bacteria generally don’t have sterols in membranes except Mycoplasma and Ureoplasma have ergosterol III. Microscopy: Simple vs. Compound Lens Systems A. Simple microscope has just one lens. (ex.) magnifying glass i. Leeuwenhoek used a homemade simple microscope to make the first reported observations of bacteria and other microbes in late 1600s B. Compound microscope has two or more lenses that act in a series to cooperatively increase the magnification of the image i. Robert Hooke used compound microscopes to examine small plant and animal specimens. He observed the compartmentalized structure of cork and introduced use of the term "cell" in


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