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UT Arlington PSYC 3322 - Cells

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PSYC 3322 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture II. Two Main Types of CellsIII. The Brain’s Internal FeaturesIV. The Central Nervous System: Mediating BehaviorOutline of Current Lecture II. The Cells of the Nervous SystemIII. Neurons: The Basis of Info ProcessingIV. Internal Structure of a CellV. Genes, Cells, and BehaviorCurrent LectureThe Cells of the Nervous System- The human NS is comprised of: neurons, glial cells.- Debate in early 1900s: What are neurons?- Golgi- NS is comprised of interconnected fibers. Golgi stain.- Cajal- behavior due to communication between cells. Used the Golgi sain to show nervesremain separate. Proved Golgi and scientific community wrong.- Golgi and Cajal both receive Nobel Prize. (1906)Five Types of Glial Cells- Ependymal cellso Hydrocephalous- Astrocyte- Microgliao Phagocytosis- Oligodendroglia Cello Myelin- Schwann Cello Multiple Sclerosis (MS)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Neurons: The Basis of Info ProcessingThree Basic Subdivisions- Dendrites- Cell body or soma- AxonDendritic spinesAxon HillockAxon collateralsTeleodendriaTerminal ButtonSynapseBasic Structure and Function- Dendrite → Cell body → Axon → Terminal ButtonDifferent Types- Sensory Neurons- Interneurons- Motor neuronsInternal Structure of a CellThe Cell as a Factory- Cell membrane- separates inside from outside, regulates movement.The Nucleus: Site of Gene Transcription- The Nucleuso Chromosome Gene Protein- Transcriptiono Messenger RNAThe Endoplasmic Reticulum: Site of RNA Synthesis- 1. DNA uncoils to expose gene, a sequence of nucleotide bases that encodes a protein.- 2. One strand of the gene serves as a template for transcribing a molecule of an mRNA.- 3. The mRNA leaves the nucleus and comes in contact with ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum.- 4. As a ribosome moves along the mRNA, it translates the bases into a specific amino acid chain, which forms the protein.The Codon- Info flow contained in genetic code:o DNA → mRNA → proteinGolgi Bodies and Microtubules: Protein Packaging and Shipment- Golgi bodies- Microtubules- 1. Proteins formed in the endoplasmic reticulum enter Golgi bodies, then wrapped in a membrane and shipped off.- 2. Packages attached to motor molecule and moves along microtubule.- 3. Protein may be incorporated into the membrane…- 4. Remain in cell as an enzyme…- 5. Or excreted from cell by exocytosis.Crossing the Cell Membrane: Channels, Gates, and Pumps- A. Channel: Ions can cross a cell membrane through the appropriately shaped channel.- B. Gated Channel: Changes shape to allow passage when gates are open, and to prevent passage when both gates are closed.- C. Pump: Transporter changes shape to carry substances across a cell membrane.Genes, Cells, and BehaviorGenotype and Phenotype- Genotypes and code for phenotypes- Emergence- Genomics- Genes → proteins → cells → behaviorChromosomes and Genes- Human somatic cells have 23 pairs of chromosomeso Autosomes: Pairs 1-22- Allele- Homozygous- AA, BB, CC- Heterozygous- Aa, Bb, Cc- Wildtype- MutationDominant and Recessive Alleles- Dominant Allele- D- Recessive Allele- d- Complete Dominance- DD- Incomplete Dominance- Dd- Codominance- cows and roosters (multicolored fur and feathers)Genetic Mutations- Can be positive, neutral, or negative- Effects may be specific or widespread- Most mutations have negative side effectsMendel’s Principles Apply to Genetic Disorders- Tay-Sachs Disease (recessive allele)- Huntington’s Chorea (dominant allele)Chromosome Abnormalities- Down Syndrome- result of extra copy of chromosome


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