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O-K-State ARCH 2003 - Ancient Greece continued

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ARCH 2003 1stEditionLecture 6Ancient Greece (Continued)Greece: The Classical Period A. The Parthenon, Athens (Temple of Athena Parthenos) Architects: Ictinus and Callicrates, the chief sculpture was Phidias for the clientPericles Built in 447- 438 B.C., sculpture completed in432 B.C.Largest and most famoustemple, dedicated to Athena Polias, patron goddess of the city Built from the finest marble from Mount Pentelikos (Pentelic marble) was erected on the same site, with enlargements and probably made of the same columndrums- (The Cylindrical volume supporting a dome) Doric templewith 8 columns wide and 17 deep, but it incorporates ionic attributes. The use of 8 columns across the gable ends or thepedimented end of a classical temple, the triangular space at the end of a double- pitched roof. Behind themat each end stand six prostyle columns a. Prostyle- columns on the front of abuilding The Stylobate (the platformfrom which the columns rise) – is actually convex upward in the Parthenon Sculpted figures adornboth the outside and the inside, the two end pediments are filled with over-life-size figures representing the east, the birth of Athena witnessed bythe gods, and on the west the contest between Athena and Poseidon for control for Athens. The metopes contained relief sculptures depicting the struggles between Greeks and Amazons, Greeks and Trojans, gods and giants, and Lapiths and centaurs Other Buildings on the AcropolisAthenian Acropolis The remainingbuildings are disposed in amanner that first seems random but it is actually carefully planned to respond to particular qualities of the site. The Acropolis is aplateau rising abruptly above the plain of the city Agora- Commercial center in the route of the Panathenaic way Propylaea A Doric portico flanked by projecting wings The Central inter-columniationis wider thanthe rest, accommodating the processional way that passed through the axial colonnaded space into the sacred precinct of the acropolis. These notes represent a detailed interpretation ofthe professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes,not as a substitute.Three pairs of Ionic columns line the passageway because the rising ground level and scale of the space dictated the choice of a more slender order A second Doric portico terminated the Proplyaea’s central section. Its northern wing was a megaron used as a picture gallery or banqueting hall The Small Temple of Athena Nike Perches on rocks that were once the site of an ancient bastion. Designed as early as 448 BCE by Kallikrates but not constructed until 420’s. Simple sanctuary that housed a wooden image of Athena holding her helmet and a pomegranate, a symbol or fertility Four Ionic columns create a portico before the eastern entrance and identical set is at the western (rear) side Erechtheion On the northern side of the Parthenon More complex version than the original Begun in 421, finished in 407 BCEIonic was chosen as the most suitable order for a temple built on two different levels to accommodate the uneven site The eastern portico, distinguished by its slender Ionic columns led to Athena’s sanctuary,where an ancient wooden image of the goddess was house North porch, it Stylobate is ten feet lower, gave access to Poseidon’s shrine through an even more elongated Ionic Portico The Other Four In all four of the Acropolis temples, one see the architects new constructions with elements from the site’s history All temples including Parthenon were painted in vibrant colors and had scultural detail, plain walls may well have had


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