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UW-Milwaukee PSYCH 205 - Looking into the Case Study Method

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Psych 205 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Case study method, statistical analysis of data, personality assessmentOutline of Current Lecture II. Case study methodA. Limitations and StrengthsIII. The different types of validityIV. The Freudian Approach: Relevant ResearchV. Dream InterpretationCurrent LectureIn todays lecture, we talked a little more in detail about the case study method and the limitations and strengths that occur with it. We were also introduced to a new term known as Validity and also the different types of validity there are. The Freudian approach was brought upagain but this time we talked about dream interpretation and what Sigmund Freud’s thoughts were towards it.Case Study Method-An in-depth evaluation of individuals-Psychotherapy is used for a client suffering from a problem that interests the investigator-A researcher records everything in great detail-Example: A person’s history, current behavior, changes in behavior-The data has to be very descriptive because the Psychologists rely on the analysis of the patient so that they can formulate ideas about their personality-Helped behaviors are easier to illustrate-Various aspects of their theories-Effectiveness of their therapies that are givenThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Case Study Method: Limitations-Generalizing from a single individual to other people-Determining the cause and effect relationships with the case study method-Interference of investigators subjective judgments with scientific objectivityCase Study Method: Strengths-Offers insight into the richness of a person’s life-Valuable for coming up with a hypothesis about the nature of human personality-It acts as a useful research tool to generate ideas-It is appropriate for examining a rare case-Suitable for arguing that the individual being studied is normal according to interests-It illustrates a treatment-Can demonstrate different possibilitiesValidity-The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure-It is easy to determine the validity for some kinds of testsFace Validity-It is a way to decide whether a test measures what it says it’s going to measure and lookat the test itemsCongruent Validity-Extent to which scores from the test correlate with the scores of theoretically unrelated measures-Also known as convergent validityDiscriminant Validity-An extent to which a test score does not correlate with the scores of theoretically unrelated measures Behavioral Validity -a step in determining the construct validity of a test-Test scores are used to predict behaviors-Usefulness of the test must be questioned if test scores cannot predict behaviorThe Freudian Approach: Relavant ResearchDream Interpretation-If dreams are represented about the individual you can use them as clues to get information from the individuals unconscious-Therapists from different perspectives use it as a therapeutic toolQuestions that are addressed in research:-What do people dream about?-Why do people dream?-Dreams contain images or thoughts that evokes emotion that people feel mean something-Traditional Freud therapists think that objects and people in a dream are some type of sexual symbols-Reoccurring dreams occur because if there is a conflict you are facing that is not resolved, your dream will continue until it is resolved and you will have anxiety throughout the dayFunction of Dreams-Allows us to express unconscious impulses-Provides a safe and healthy outlet for expressing unconscious conflictsREM Sleep-Refers to rapid eye movement called paradoxical sleep because the brain inhibits motor movements-The muscles are relaxed but there is still a lot of brain activity-It is filled with dreams-Research indicates that people that are deprived of REM sleep one night, increase their amount of REM sleep the next night-Sleepwalking does not occur in REM sleepInterpreting the evidence-Researchers produced a number of findings that go along with Freud’s speculations-The content of dreams is not random and it serves psychological functions-Researchers uncovered the results that are difficult to explain with the Freudian theoryExample: REM sleep occurs in mammals; newborns have up to 8 hours of REM sleep per dayDefense Mechanisms-Unconscious effort to conceal painful thoughts-It is based on the psychoanalytical approach-Ego consists of tools to fend off guilt and anxiety-Investigators that interpret responses to Rorschach inkblots do itDevelopmental Differences-Research says young children rely on denial-Denial: wanting to ignore the actually fact (not believing)-Mature children find denial of facts and feelings to be ineffective-Older children turn to projection to alleviate their anxiety -The use of defense mechanisms shows emotional maturity-To identify if a defense mechanism is adaptive or maladaptive it depends on how often that person relies on it and how old they are-Anna Freud says that defense mechanisms are maladaptive when used past an appropriate age -It relates to how people react to common sources of


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