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UMass Amherst ANTHRO 150 - ANTHRO FINAL

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ANTHRO FINALIDEOLOGIES AND RITUALS ESSAY- Lucero articleMAP ON THE REGIONS WE COVEREDIMPERIALISM AND COLLAPSEAdena- 10000BC-100AD, largely known for burial mounds, bodies cremated then put in a wooden structure then buried in a mound. Not made all at once, people would come back over time and add to them. Tobacco pipes found in this culture, mounds periodically get bigger, sometimes in shapes (effigy mounds) of animals andsuch like the serpent. Mounds ONLY used for tombs.Ahau/Ajaw- “king”/high status ritual practitioners, claim control of resourcesAlgonquian- Late Woodland Period 1000-1600, no evidence for year round habitation or houses/settlements, all evidence indicates that they were very mobile, not intensive farmers, bring domesticated maize into their culture, use it, plant it, consume it, choose not to become sedentary farmers (know about that lifestyle, choose not to live it), mobile farming lifestyle, plant foods, let them grow, come back and pick them, make use of farming style but not have it be the center of their societyAztec- 1150-1519, adopted many traits from predecessors, ended with Hernando Cortes 1519, germs managed to wipe out a lot of people, codex/codices (ex. Mendoza) -> historical accounts, ritual stories, and tribute records, Tenochtitlan is capital of their culture, coyolxauhqui: 11ft stone carved disc, religious mythology, body of goddess of coyo at base of mountain, large serpent head hidden under ground at base of a massive pyramid. Did not have many soldiers, could not have a standing army to control all places at once. Maintained a threat, pochtecas. Hernando Cortes invades, took advantage of always fragmenting Aztec empire, convinced them that under his rule they could rebelBall Court/Game- Every classic period Mesoamerican site had one, capital “I” shapedcourt, may or may not have had structures at the ends, lots of artistic works depicting this game in elaborate costumes, solid rubber ball like lacrosse ball, don’t know if it was ever actually played as a game or if it was more of a ritual reenactment, used in many narratives like Popul Vuh, game explains things like how Maize came to be produced, representations of people being sacrificed during ball game (winner, loser, we don’t know). Narrative of death and sacrifice had something to do with the narrative of the ball game, some aspects of ball game passed on to other cultures, were a very prominent part of rituals, one of very largest courts found in Chichen ItzaBloodletting- Classic Mayan rituals, let blood out of fingers/hands, sacrifices, smoke the blood is ancestors or some sort of serpent, self piercingCacao Pods- Classic Maya, part of trade, made cacao, pods may have been used for money?, cacao was high status- Ahau’s had pots, cacao pots were earliest known screw topsCahokia- Mississippian mounds used for houses and temples, height signified status,, monumental proportion, core area 15/16 acres wide, ranging residential area outside of itCenote- Classic Maya, sinkholes in limestone from erosion; big holes in ground with a ton of water, sacrifices and rituals done hereChichen Itza- Maya, post classic, pyramid structures with steps, similar to old pyramid structures but different, courtyard, Yucatan peninsulaChinampas- Used by Aztecs,middle post classic period but mostly Aztecs artificial floating gardens, dug channels through swampy areas and put piled up soil in fencedin islands that look like theyre floating on top of the waterCity State- independent, city and surrounding territory, rules itself, single urban center with smaller farming towns surrounding, a sovereign state compromising a city and the surrounding countrysideCivilization- a group of ppl with ways of life, religion, and learning, the stage of human social development and organization, which is considered most advanced. Key characteristic= specialized workers, record keeping, advanced technology, advanced cities, complex govCodex/Codices- Aztec, Mendoza, recorded historical accounts (wars), ritual stories (dates, when and how performed), and tribute recordsCollapse- all of the places we’ve studied have collapsed, Conquest- Cortes conquers AztecsCopan- Mesoamerican site with huge emphasis on excavation on large groupings of stone structures in the middle of the rainforest; large temples in a courtyard, built up and expanded over time, series of large step pyramids with structures on top- sometimes people lived inside, sometimes rituals took place there, multiple purposesEffigy Mounds- Adena culture, burial mounds made into shapes (serpets, animals, etc)Environmental Degradation- the deterioration in environmental quality from ambient concentrations of pollutants and other activities and processes such as improper land use and natural disasters,Formative (Pre Classic)/Classic/Post Classic- - Formative: 1500-500BCE, Olmec, Increased centralization, creation of some sites that are more monumental- Classic- Maya 250-1000AD, agricultural society, swidden farming, different economies with different types of agriculture, giant monumental cores, elaborate costumes and rituals, self piercing/blood letting rituals, sacrifices, trade routes with high status goods, Ahaus, cacao pots, NO metals, are not trading excess food bc everyone has their own, did not have pack animals or vehicles so had to carry trade by hand, NO standing armies, completely reliant on people living around them to get food because they were involved in rituals and not farming, complex writing system that few could read, - Post classic- 900-1519AD after collapse, less stress, more healthy, people no longer building monuments to individual leaders or other architectural things (doesn’t mean they left, just transformed), after collapse some people migrated north, gave rise to powerful people, Chichen Itza, different styles of architecture more decorative, no effort to show political structure, Hernando Cortes ends itGreenstone- high status good traded in Classic Mayan periodHieroglyphics- used as decorations in architecture, writing not exactly like hieroglyphs but similarHopewell- 200BC-400AD, emerged from Adena, increase in domestication but still mostly wild foods, sites seemed to be abandoned, mounds stop being added too, after about 400AD we don’t see the creation of mounds anymore, people still live there but transition away from centralization, mounds used solely for tombsHuman sacrifice- during ball game, rituals, Mayan and Aztec,


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