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UH BIOL 3324 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 3324 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide- The Cell Membrane and Membrane Transport o Compartments of the body o The Plasma Membrane  Know what it’s functionally responsible for o Law of Mass Balance  Definition of homeostasis Gain v. Loss o Homeostasis v. Equilibrium  Dynamic and steady stateo Bulk Flow o Membrane Permeability  Permeable v. Impermeable  Selectively permeable  What properties influence permeability?o Types of Membrane transport  Diffusion Protein-Mediated Transport Vesicular Transport Osmosiso Membrane Proteins involved in transport  Structural proteins  Enzymes  Receptors  Transporters o Vesicular transport  Phagocytosis  Endocytosis Exocytosiso Epithelial transport  Absorption Secretion Paracellular Transceullar Transcytosis- Signal Transductiono Osmosis  Osmotic pressure Osmolality Tonicity Electricity o Membrane Potentials Know what is responsible for the membrane potential  The effect of potassium alone on the resting membrane potentialo Equilibrium Potentials  The effect of sodium alone on the resting membrane potential The effect of the sodium, potassium pump on membrane resting potential Concurrent effects of potassium and sodium on membrane restingpotential The effect of sodium and potassium on the resting membrane potentialo Membrane Electrical States Polarization Depolarization Repolarization Hyperpolarizationo Cell to cell communication  Electrical, chemical differences Gap junctions  Contact-dependent signaling  Local signaling  Long-distance signaling  Nervous System signalingo Signaling Pathways Know the common featureso Two categories of chemical signals Hydrophilic or lipophobic Lipophilic o Membrane receptors o G-protein Signal Transduction Know it’s commonly referred to as a second messenger system o Ca+/Calmodulin Signal Transduction o Signal modulation  Agonist Antagonist - Cell Signaling o Control Systems Know what are the 3 basic parts to control system Know Cannon’s Postulates Know Local Control v. Reflex Controlo Response Loops Stimulus  Sensor Afferent pathway Integration Center Efferent Pathway Effector Responseo Feedback Loops Negative feedback v. Positive feedback Feedforward control and biological rhythms o Systemic reflexes  Speed, duration, intensity Endocrine reflexes last longer than neural reflexes Nature of the signal determines intensityo General hormones  Origin of secretion Secretion Targets Concentrations  Complexity of hormone action Complexity of endocrine function Hormone classificationso Protein/peptide hormones o Protein/peptide synthesiso Steroid hormones  Synthesis, storage, and release Transport Mechanism of actiono Hormone action o The pituitary gland Anterior pituitary  Posterior pituitary o Hypothalamic control of the pituitary gland  Hormone secretion Portal system  Function  Effect that hormones have on hormoneso Endocrine pathologies Three basic patterns- Electrical Signaling o Organization of the Nervous System  Two major systemso The neuron  Three “regions”- Cell body- Dendrites- Axon  Functional classes - Afferent - Interneurons - Efferent neurons o Glial cells  General function 4 types found in CNS 2 types found in PNSo Electrical signaling in neurons  Voltage-gated Chemically-gated Mechanically-gatedo Graded potentials o Action potentials  The events that comprise an action potential What happens at the triggering event? What happens at threshold? The return to resting potential After the Action Potentialo The refractory period Know the 2 components: - Absolute - Relative o AP conduction o Myelination  Nodes of Ranvier- Synapses o The synapse  5-step programo Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators  7 major classes based on structure all bind to one or more receptor types (Except NO) Fall into 2 catergories: GPCR, or ligand-gated ion channelo Neuroreception o EPSPs, IPSPs, and the GPSP o Neural pathways  Divergence  Convergence o Summation and Cancellation  Temporal v. Spatialo Presynaptic inhibition/facilitation  Changes the mechanismo Postsynaptic modulation  Don’t need to


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