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Pitt ANTH 0538 - Lecture 7

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1/27/15“You Can Take it With You” – Dead Pits at UrI. Ram-in-the-Thicketa. Picture of an animal and was a symbol of royal authority over the Samarian societyi. King presenting food to his peopleII. Standard of Ura. War and Peaceb. Puabi’s funeralIII. Meskalamdug: King’s favorite minister (of great importance)IV. What would today’s Archeologist do differently?a. Pay more attention to commonersi. Woolley wasn’t really interested to the commoners nor their tombsii. 19th and 30th century, bias in archeology towards tombs of elitesiii. General bias in historical study towards elites and high culture (kings, palaces, temples, “great men”)b. Today know studying commonersi. Provides a more democratic, complete view of societyii. Helps “Democratize” archeological perspectiveiii. Same location as royal tombs (area also used as a midden)1. Woolley provided some info on 2000 graves, encountered another with 4000, when the Ur population is 10,000 WHO”S IN? WHO”S NOT?2. A lot more than 6000 people would have died at Ur3. Lot of dead not ending up in Cemetery4. Who’s missing?a. No infants or children = weird since there was a high mortality rate in the young5. Inclusion depend on status only (some) adults could obtain6. Age dependent treatment strong feature of Sumerian deathwaysV. 300 Burial date to Early Dynastic IIIa. Ordered arrangement, lack of overlapi. Above-ground markersb. Woolley noticed many graves disturbed, show signs of re-entry (“looting”) or part of deathwaysc. Reclaiming goods after a period of timeVI. Commoner Burial Patternsa. Mostly single burials in pitsi. A few coffins or chambersii. Body flexed on sideiii. Males – head to SWiv. Females – head to NWVII. Commoner Grave Goodsa. Half of graves lack grave goods (preservation?)b. Most common: small conical bowlc. Commoners not all treated equallyd. Some rich commoners includedVIII. Commonersa. Items of Adornmenti. Pinsii. Braceletsiii. Necklacesiv. Earringsb. Personal Itemsi. Combsii. Brushesiii. Cosmetic Casesiv. Tweezersc. Weaponsi. Knivesii. Spearsiii. Axesd. Vesselsi. Bowls for everyday eating or drinkingIX. What are not grave goods?a. No work related stuffi. No ordinary toolsb. No furniturec. No art, no statues, etc.i. No religious itemsd. Strong gendering in most commoner grave goodsi. Females: more jewelry, hair ornaments, no weaponsii. Males: brims, no hair items, at least one axe or


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