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Pitt ANTH 0538 - Week 3 Readings

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I. Larsen – “Reading the Bones of La Florida”a. Columbus landed in Caribbean, and lives of Native Americans changedb. Archeologists uncovered the ruins of large churches that served the converts and carried out religious functions for the living and deadc. Bioarchaeology is uncovering specifics about how food sources changed and agricultural life for Indiansd. Inconclusive of them depending on agriculture or note. Use bones to reconstruct ancient diets from carbon and nitrogen contentf. Corn is bad – it has lots of sugar, causing bad oral health, and contains phytate that binds with iron, inhibiting absorption of the mineral, causing low iron intakeg. Men worked on farms, building projects, government, and militaryh. Bioarchaeology confirmed the forced labor of Indians and the diseasesthat plagued themII. Pringle – Sickness of Mummiesa. Lot of children found – a quarter of heir children perished before reaching their first birthday; a third of them suffered from infections that eroded their leg bonesb. Health is important because it determines lot about how they interacted with each otherc. Could argue that Aztecs performed many sacrifices because of protein deficiencies and malnourishmentd. Reinhard began researching on Anasazi settlements; examined undigested corn/squash with mummified larvae and four parasites: roundworms, pinworms, tapeworms, and wirewormse. The Chinchorro sculpted painted, and preserved their dead as a way ofstaking claim to the land of their ancestorsi. Earliest known mummies are those of childrenii. Arriaza thought it was very loving to take such care of the deceased children/infantsf. A bunch of gross scientific health problems of parasites causing diseasesIII. Goodman “Disease and Death at Dr. Dickson’s Mounds”a. Dickson became concerned with the patterns of disease and death in this extinct group in order to understand how these people lived and why they often died earlyb. “Dickson Mounds” researched and revealed the transition from hunting and gathering to agricultural lifec. Dickson became part of the Mississippian tradition – a network of maize growing, mound-building societiesd. Gordon Childe believed that development of agriculture prompted the first great revolution in human technologye. Anemia – body stops production of red blood cells, formed in the bonemarrowf. Increase in frequency of porotic hyperostosis during the Mississippianperiodg. Decline in health possibly from effects of agriculture on diet and population increase associated with the changeover to agriculture which creates opportunities for the spread of diseasesIV. Wilkinson “Violence against Women” -Abductiona. The high frequency of injured women who died in the 21-25 age range, combined with the large number of “uninjured” women who also died in young adulthood, is interpreted as evidence for substantial violence directed at this age groupb. Mild injuries represent form of unusual osteoporosisc. Male cranial injury frequency was quite low, unless they were buried elsewhered. The severe injuries of the head is in the frontal lobe, which has twice the resistance strength of the parietalse. Either the blow to the skull was forceful enough to depress the bone into the dura or the bone itself was dislodged in women – evidence of cranial fracturef. Violence in the form of blunt weapon attack was directed at the heads of women; accidental injuries are too improbableg. Too many are young adults so self-infliction is nearly impossibleh. Women are responsible for aggressive acts…conflict among women, including physical assault, is more common in polygamous societiesi. Possibly the injured women are those who failed to cooperate with their abductorsj. Bones relay only a partial story of a population’s experiencesV. Tung “Violence Against Women” – Differential Treatment of Local vs. Foreigna. No


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