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URI AVS 101 - Minerals

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AVS 101 1st Edition Lecture 7Minerals Composed of individual elements Dietary essential You don’t synthesize or alter it in body Macro and MicroMacrominerals Required in larger amounts Calcium (Ca) & Phosphorous (P)FUNCTIONS• Bones, teeth, nerve & muscle activity• Ca:P ratio = 2:1• Ca must exceed P in diet• PICA – abnormal appetite• Eat wood & rocks• Convulsions à milk fever Magnesium (Mg)FUNCTIONS• Enzyme activator• Contained in skeleton• Grass tetany – Nitrogen ties up Mg• Treat with IV Mg• Rare in human & cattle• Opisthotonos – star gazer position• Convulsion• Milk-fed calves Sodium (Na) & Chlorine (Cl)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.• Salt (NaCl) for water balance in cells• Salt starvation à cannibalismPotassium (K)• Electrolyte balance• Muscle function• Heart lesion Sulfur (S)• Aids in wool growth• Poor/slow wool growthMicro Minerals (Trace Minerals) Required in small amountsCobalt (Co)• Needed to synthesize Vitamin B12 in ruminants• Rough coat & reproductive failureIron (Fe)• Part of pigment in hemoglobin• Carries O2• Anemia – in baby pigs• Give iron dextron injection by 3-4 weeksCopper (Cu)• Needed to make hemoglobin• Anemia• Swayback disease - sheep• Pigment abnormality Iodine• Aids in thyroid function• Thyroid gland produces hormone thyroxin• Controls BMR (basal metabolic rate)• Hairless baby pigs• Weak foals• “Big neck disease”• Leads to goiter• Thyroid gets larger to trap more Iodine• Doesn’t decrease in size after adding Iodine to diet• Goitrogens – substance that promotes goiter• Goiter Belt – soil deficient in Iodine• North Dakota to Oklahoma• SOURCES• Iodized salt• Potassium Iodide (KI)• KI:NaCl• 1:10,000• Found in seafood – fish oil Manganese (Mn)FUNCTIONS• Enzyme activator (muscle)• Carb/fat/protein metabolismDEFICIENCIES• Perosis – slipped tendon Molybdenum (Mo)FUNCTIONS• Enzyme activator• DNA/RNAEXCESS• Soils high in Mo• Toxicity in cattle àteartà dehydration, diarrhea, anemiaDEFICIENCIES• Rare in humansSelenium (Se)FUNCTIONS• Normal hoof growthEXCESS• Alkalai disease• Visual impairment• Hoof abnormalities• Tail falls ofDEFICIENCIES• Similar to Vitamin E • Requirement for all animals Zinc (Zn)FUNCTIONS• Related to enzyme function• Helps rid body of CO2DEFICIENCIES• Parakeratosis-abnormal skin• Poor hatchability in birds Fluorine (F)FUNCTIONS• Component of tooth enamelEXCESS• Fluorosis – cumulative efect• Chalky or mottled


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