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PSY 231 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture I. What Happens GeneticallyII. Genetics and Reproductive ChoicesIII. Influences We Can SeeIV. Biology, Environment, and BehaviorOutline of Current Lecture- Prenatal Development and BirthI. Prenatal DevelopmentII. Environmental Influences Within the WombIII. ChildbirthCurrent LectureI. Prenatal Developmenta. Begins at the moment of conceptioni. Corpus luteum- spot on the ovary that releases the egg and secretes hormones that prepare the uterine liningii. Sperm can live up to 6 days waiting for eggsiii. Egg only survives for 1 dayiv. Next 38 weeks after the joining of the egg and sperm is prenatal developmentb. Most rapid development occursi. Transaction between environment and heredityc. The period of the zygotei. Lasts two weeks 1. 30% will not make itii. Conception  implantationd. Implantationi. Fertilized egg burrows into the uterine wallii. Two week periode. Placenta/umbilical cordi. Removes waste productsii. Feeds childThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.iii. Connected to developingiv. Three tubes1. One large vein carrying blood with nutrients2. Two arteries to carry away waste productsf. Embryonic periodi. Lasts from implantation to the 8th weekii. Amniotic sac- has a constant temperature and cushioningiii. Chorionic villi iv. Yolk sac- goes away when baby begins to make its own bloodv. Embryo is very vulnerablevi. Second month development1. Eyes, ears, nose, jaw, and neck form2. Tiny buds for arms, legs, fingers, and toes form3. Internal organs become more distinct4. Heart develops chambers5. Is 1 inch long and weights 1/7th of an ounce6. Can sense the world and sense touch in toes and mouth7. Can have its own movements, but are too small for mom to noticevii. Morning sickness often reported now1. Some will have it, some won’t2. Evolutionary basedg. Fetal periodi. Longest period, from 8th week until birthii. Growth and finishing phaseiii. 3rd month development (12 weeks)1. Organs, muscles, and nervous system are organized2. Movement occurs3. Hiccups4. External genitalia a. Earliest to detect gender5. Finger nails, toe nails, and tooth buds develop6. Has eye lids7. End = finished with first trimesteriv. 17 – 20 weeks1. Mom can feel movements and sense it from inside2. Has skina. Vernix – “cream cheesy” substance on baby to keep its skinfrom being chappedb. Lanugo- downy hair that covers baby3. Organs are well developed4. Too little to survive on its ownv. 22nd – 26th week1. Age of viability2. Can survive with medical interventionvi. 3rd trimester1. Brain developmenta. Grooves and convolutions to allow for greater surface area and allows head to not be over-sized2. More time spent awake because of neurological functioninga. Active fetus = active babyb. First month of life is related to the later development of the fetus3. Gains 5 pounds and grows 7 inchesa. Fills the uterusb. Gets cramped  goes into the fetal positionc. Heavier head than the rest of the body  flips upside down4. Receives antibodies from moma. Premature babies don’t get antibodies because they’re born before this period5. Need to feel 10 movements in an hour from the baby to ensure it is healthy and thrivingII. Environmental Influencesa. Teratogens- any environmental influence with a negative effect on development i. Includes drugs, pollution, lead exposure, medication, alcohol, etc.ii. Influencing factors on teratogen effects:1. Dose2. Heredity- of both mom and baby influences how teratogens will be processed3. Age- of the developing baby (Zygotic importance > 3rd trimester)4. Other presence- more than one teratogeniii. Sensitive periods1. Teratogens won’t have a long impact on zygotic period because the pregnancy will be terminated2. Embryonic- complications would occur3. 3rd trimester- less of an effectiv. Drugs1. Rx, legal, and illegala. All can have very serious effectsb. High caffeine = miscarriage, low birth weight, infant irritability, and vomitingb. Maternal factorsi. Tobacco use1. Babies born with low birth weight2. Higher rate of miscarriage, prematurity, infant death, and children who develop asthmaii. SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)- responsible for more deaths than any other cause between 1 month and 1 yeara. Not suffocation or heart troubleb. Serotonin differencesc. Affects all races and ethnicitiesd. 1 baby every hour, everyday dies from SIDSe. Unpredictablef. Usually occurs between 2 and 4 monthsg. Mostly occur in fall and winterh. 60% deaths = malei. 40% deaths = femalej. also a factor when mom is less than 20, has low birth weight gain (average is 25 pounds), uses illegal drugs, has an STD, and/or has poor prenatal careiii. Exercise1. Good benefits and a dark side2. 30 – 60 minutes less than 5x a week = heavy, healthy baby3. More than 60 minutes or more than 5x a week = less healthy baby4. Good = walking, running, swimming, biking, weight trainingiv. Emotional Stress1. Excessive levels- puts baby at riska. Higher rate of miscarriage, prematurity, low birth weight, problems with respiratory and digestive functioningb. Prenatal growth delays, cleft deformities (smaller opening for stomach = vomiting)2. Constriction for blood flow = baby doesn’t get the blood that it should3. Stress hormones cross the placenta and increase the baby’s heart rate4. Effects can be reduced in a supportive environmentv. Age of mom1. Advance maternal age = 35 and up2. Rate of problems for health women in 30’s and 40’s, however, is the same as women in their 20’s3. Age 50 – 55 = complications rise sharply4. Down syndrome is linked with older eggs, but seen in young people tooIII. Childbirtha. Three stagesi. Dilation- cervix opens for the baby to fit throughii. Delivery of the babyiii. Delivery of the placentab. What happens to the baby?i. Squished and stressed1. Baby releases stress hormones to prepare them and keep them awake and take their first breath when born2. Natural process- stress develops slowlya. Good for the baby and allows stress levels to not get too highc. What happens to mama?i. Contractions1. Purposes = allows cervix to open ad dilation to occur, naturally squeezes the baby in the right directiond. Home deliveryi. 1% occurrence in North Americaii. Often monitored by midwives who are trained and know their stuffiii. Not the best choice if there are complications iv. Otherwise, really


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