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UW-Madison LINGUIS 101 - Phonetics

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Lecture 5Phonetics 3 continuedAspiration in English[p], [t], [k] aspirated at the beginning of a wordun-aspirated when preceded by [s]aspiration is the result of a lag in voice onset time (VOT)un-aspirated- vocal folds start vibrating as soon as the following vowel beginsaspirated- vocal folds remain in the voiceless position for some time into the articulation of the vowelEnglish- not contrastive, therefore may leave it out in broad transcriptionKhmer- contrastive, therefore must include this detail even in broad transcription of khmerWhat is a narrow detail in one language, could be a broad detail in anotherSome narrow transcriptionsAspirationAutomatic dipthongsGlottal stops and flapSchwaPhonetics 4Suprasegmentals: pitch, length, stressSuprasegmental information is phonetic information that may be combined with segments in a non-sequential mannerPitch scale of high to low pitchLength- duration of a segmentLoudness- volume of a segmentPitch- rate of vibration of vocal foldsFaster vibration = higher pitchIntonation- pitch modulation signals grammatical or semantic information above the world level (all languages)Ex: Danny became a lawyer, Danny became a lawyer?, Danny became a lawyer!Tone- single syllable words which differ only in pitch have different meaningsVery common- the majoring of world’s languages are tone languages! Mandarin, Thai, Vietnamese, Cherokeee, Mohawk, Zulu, YorubaRegister tones- a single level pitch in one syllable. At most 5 different level tones per language, usually only 3 (H, M, L)Contour tones- have a rise or fall in pitch in a single syllable. Can have many contour tone contrasts within a single languageTones of Kam – 3 register tones and 6 contour tones= 9  the most contrastive tones in the worldLength- segment length may signal word meaning contrastsVowels and consonants may be crucial in some languaLINGUIS 101 1st Edition Lecture 5Phonetics 3 continuedAspiration in English -[p], [t], [k] aspirated at the beginning of a word -un-aspirated when preceded by [s] -aspiration is the result of a lag in voice onset time (VOT)oun-aspirated- vocal folds start vibrating as soon as the following vowel begins oaspirated- vocal folds remain in the voiceless position for some time into the articulation of the vowel -English- not contrastive, therefore may leave it out in broad transcription -Khmer- contrastive, therefore must include this detail even in broad transcription of khmer oWhat is a narrow detail in one language, could be a broad detail in another -Some narrow transcriptions oAspiration oAutomatic dipthongs oGlottal stops and flapoSchwa Phonetics 4 -Suprasegmentals: pitch, length, stress -Suprasegmental information is phonetic information that may be combined with segments in a non-sequential manner oPitch scale of high to low pitchoLength- duration of a segment oLoudness- volume of a segment-Pitch- rate of vibration of vocal folds oFaster vibration = higher pitchIntonation- pitch modulation signals grammatical or semantic information above the world level (all languages) Ex: Danny became a lawyer, Danny became a lawyer?, Danny became a lawyer! Tone- single syllable words which differ only in pitch have different meanings Very common- the majoring of world’s languages are tone languages! Mandarin, Thai, Vietnamese, Cherokeee, Mohawk, Zulu, Yoruba -Register tones- a single level pitch in one syllable. At most 5 different level tones per language, usually only 3 (H, M, L)-Contour tones- have a rise or fall in pitch in a single syllable. Can have many contour tone contrasts within a single languageTones of Kam – 3 register tones and 6 contour tones= 9  the most contrastive tones in the world -Length- segment length may signal word meaning contrasts Vowels and consonants may be crucial in some


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