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SC CRJU 101 - Criminal Justice Test 2 Study Guide

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BOOK- 4-63 majors aspects of American Policing from England-Limited Authority-powers and duties dictated by law(unlike anywhere else in Europe)-Local Control- No national Police force-Fragmented OrganizationFrankpledge System- pre 13th century- groups of 10 families- self report crimes- age over 12. “tithing” (hue and cry-report crime)Policing in US:Pre-1640 Boston- Watching- warn citizens of everything, from crimes to fires- all citizens had to be a part- some were paid replacements- went from nighttime on to include daytimePolitical Era (1840-1920)- close ties between political parties and police- police worked for mayors political -party favored both- led to police not enforcing laws such as gambling, drinking, and prostitiutionU.S. Marshals- federal gov’t appointed- help enforce laws in western territoriesSheriff- similar to Shire Reeves-rural origination- elected and had broad powers to enforce laws- posse commitatues- “Power of county” local men responded to sheriffscalls for assistanceProfessional Model Era (1920-1970)- Pregressives2 goals: more efficient government and more government assistance to help poor-police out of politics, and politics out of policeSIX Elements of Professsional Policing-force should stay out of politics-Members should be well trained, well disciplined, tightly organized-Laws enforced equally-Force should use new technology-Personnel Procedures should be based on merit-main task-fighting crimeIACP (International Assoc. of Chiefs of Police) 1902FOP (Fraternal Order of Police) 1915Both- training standards, code of ethics, new techCommunity Policing Era (1970-Present)- calls to move away from crime fighting and focus on crime prevention and services to community3 Findings of Police Work-Increasing number of police patrols In neighborhoods had little effecton crime rate-rapid response to calls for service did not greatly increase the arrest rate-improving the % of crimes solved is difficultFindings undermined acceptance of professional crime-fighter modelThree Assumptions of Broken Window Policing- “little problems”-maintaining order, providing services to those in need-Neighborhood disorder creates fear-Unintended disorderly behavior is a sign that the community does not care, just like vandalism. Leads to worse disorder and crime-IF police are to deal with disorder, and thus reduce fear and crime, must rely on citizens for assistanceCommunity Policing- Problem Oriented Policing= underlying causes of crime ex: battered spouses, abandoned buildings, noisy teens-quality of life crimes (arresting subway fare-beaters)- lessens Violent crimeLaw Enforcement Agencies:Federal:FBI- within US DOJ-Priorities(2012):1. protect U.S. from terrorist attack2. Protect U.S. from foreign intelligence operations and espionage3. protect U.S. against Cyber based and high tech crimes4. Combat public corruption at all levels5. Protect Civil Rights6. Combat Transnational and National Crime organizations7. Combat major white-collar crime8. Combat significant major crime9. Support federal, state, county, municipal, and international partners10. Upgrade Technology to successfully perform FBI’s missionElsewhere in DOJ: DEA (controlled substances), IRS, ATF(alcohol, tobacco, firearms,bombings), US Marshals Service(security at courthouse, transport federal prisoners, protect witnesses, and pursue fugitives w/in U.S.)Department of Homeland Security- Customs and Border Protections, Secret Service, Transportation Security Administration (TSA-Airports)National Parks Service- power from exec. Branch- police powers related to specific dutiesU.S. Department of Edu- student loan fraudUS department of Health- Medicare and Medicaid fraudState agencies- state highways, provides complete law enforcement service in rural areas, and sometimes conducts state-wide drug investigations and police service at state facilities and courts (Hawaii) -all states forces regulate state highways, and 2/3rds of forces have been given general powers- most often where there is no other jurisdiction or when assistance is needed. Crime Lab- State policeCounty Agencies: Sheriffs (started in rural areas, but now these functions have been assumed by state or local police department-North East).South or West- Sheriff is a well organized force. Still sometimes lack jurisdiction- cover unincorporated parts of cities, etc. Sheriff is often an officer of the court-operate jails, serve court orders, provide bailiffs for courtroomsNative American Tribal Police- tribes are separate, sovereign nations and have significant legal autonomy. Power to enforce tribal laws against everyone on their lands-including non Native-Americans. Traditionally forced by BIA federal officers (Bureau of Indian Affairs) or their own tribal police. -some reservations have high rates of unemployment and poverty- problems for policeMunicipal: cities and towns- general law enforcement authority. SWORN PERSONNEL-power to make arrests. 5 Largest City PD’s- NYPD, Chicago, LA, Philadelphia, and Houston- 15% of all local PDCentral City and many suburbs- divided up amongst jurisdictionsSpecial Jurisdiction: University Police(can make arrests), conservation and park rangers, these often have assistance from municipal, state, and federal enforcementOther Police Requirements-20/20 vision-healthy weight-psych evaluationsLaw Enforcement Certification-passed police academy, 12-22 week non degree-smaller areas often recruit officers who already have these qualifications-cant afford to send them to school25% of police are minority groups- pre 1970’s- didn’t hire non-whites40% in larger areasWomen- 7% of top command spotsSocialization- members learn symbols, beliefs, and values of a group or subculture- informal rather than rule book ways of law enforcement. New officers learn to look productive, short cuts in paper work, stay safe in dangerous situations, analyze conflicts, Subculture- members learn symbols, beliefs, and values of a small group-produces a working personality- set of emotional and behavioral characteristics developed by members of an occupational group in response to worksituation2 elements of working personality: -threat of danger-need to establish and maintain authorityDilemmas for Police Morality Assistance:-contradiction between the goal of preventing crime and the officer’s inabilityto do so-fact that officers must use their discretion to “handle” situations in ways thatDON”T strictly follow procedure-fact


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