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MU PSY 231 - Chapter 2: Biological and Environmental Foundations

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PSY 231 1st Edition Lecture 2Outline of Last Lecture I. What is Human Development?II. Eight Periods of DevelopmentIII. The BasicsIV. Developmental ControversiesV. Lifespan PerspectiveVI. Theoretical BackgroundsVII. Research Designs- Developmental StyleOutline of Current Lecture- Chapter 2: Biological and Environmental FoundationsI. What Happens GeneticallyII. Genetics and Reproductive ChoicesIII. Influences We Can SeeIV. Biology, Environment, and BehaviorCurrent LectureI. What Happens Geneticallya. Phenotype vs. Genotypei. Phenotype = physical featuresii. Genotype = genetic component of what is seen physicallyb. Genesi. A segment of DNA along the length of a chromosomeii. All humans are 99.1% genetically identicalc. Sex cellsi. Sperm and egg unite, resulting in a zygoteii. Zygote- the stepping stone to the actual baby, has 23 pairs of chromosomesd. Male or femalei. Depends on the last pair of chromosomesii. XX = femaleiii. XY = maleiv. Can best determine male or female at 20 weeks of pregnancye. Twinsi. Identical twins- one egg fertilized by one sperm; monozygoticThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. Frequency is 1 in 330 birthsii. Fraternal twins- two different eggs fertilized; dizygotic1. Frequency is 1 in 60 births2. Influenced by environmental and genetic factorsiii. In vitro fertilization increases likelihood of twins II. Genetics and Reproductive Choicesa. Down Syndrome- 1 in 800 birthsi. Speech problemsii. Memory problemsiii. Limited vocabularyiv. Cognitive impairmentsv. Heart and intestinal difficultiesvi. “Trisome 21”vii. Distinct appearance- almond shaped eyes for exampleviii. Overlapped complications with Alzheimer’six. Risk rises with older age of parents conceivingx. Influenced by support in the environmentxi. Infant and preschool intervention = better outcomes for childxii. Miscarriage or early childhood death if a problem with autosomes existsxiii. Problem with the 23rd pair of chromosomes doesn’t show in child until maturity/pubertyb. Genetic counselingi. Communication process designed to help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing, and prevention of genetic disorders ii. People who are not yet pregnant can undergo tests to find out the likelihood of having a child with an abnormality iii. Moms with cognitive impairment, are over 35 years old, has down syndrome, or are with a man with down syndrome are most likely to do genetic testingc. Prenatal diagnoses and fetal medicinei. Percent risk of genetic disorder from quad screeningii. Amniocentesis – fluid from amniotic sac, but increases likelihood of miscarriageiii. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)- causes likelihood of miscarriageiv. Maternal blood analysisIII. Influences We Can Seea. Familial Influencesi. Direct- child rearing and parenting styleii. Indirect- not something you’re aware of (how parents get alone with eachother, the presence of others, “third party” influences)b. Socioeconomic statusi. Poverty/affluence1. 12% of US and Canada are affected by poverty2. 13.2% in Ohio3. 21.9% in Cincinnati (average income = 29K)4. 11.9% in Butler County (average income = 53K)ii. SES = income, education level, skill or prestige required in jobiii. High SES = less time together as a family and less free timeiv. Low SES = more family time and free time c. Influences outside the homei. Communities1. Safe vs. dangerous2. Good neighborhood = higher quality schoolsd. Cultural Influencesi. How close you are to extended familyii. Family traditionsIV. Biology, Environment, and Behaviora. Heritability- the extent to which individual differences in complex traits are due to geneticsi. 0.75 heritability = 75% due to genetics, 25% due to the environmentb. Concordance- determined with identical twins. Tells if one twin has an illness, trait, or disease how likely the other twin is to have it as welli. Down syndrome = 100% concordance rateii. Schizophrenia = 95% concordance rateiii. Common cold = 0% concordance ratec. Genetic-Environmental Correlationi. Passive- child doesn’t choose their environment; based on parents’ choiceii. Evocative- toddler can tell you their preferences and can respond to the environment1. Can be positive or negative2. Shows whether the environment supports geneticsiii. Active- person can choose their environment in support of their geneticsd. Environmental Influencei. Can’t completely separate genetics and environmentii. Bidirectional


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