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U of A ANTH 1023 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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ANTH 1023 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Chapter 1, Lecture 1Define and explain the terms: Cultural anthropology, Society, Culture, Holism, Ethnography, Artifact, Prehistoric, Applied Anthropology, Racism, Culture-bound illness/syndrome, and Indigenous peoples. Are there any groups who are wholly unaffected by the modern world and uncontaminated by its practices? What are the basic subfields of Anthropology?- Know the basics regarding the subfields of anthropology: oBiological/physical anthropology: the subdiscipline that studies people from a biological perspective, focusing primarily on aspects of humankind that genetically inherited. In includes osteology, nutrition…oLinguistic: subdiscipline concerned with understanding language and its relation to culture. oArcheology: subdiscipline that focuses on the reconstruction of past cultures based on their material remains (artifacts), prehistoric societies or cultures with no known history- Cultural anthropology: The comparative study of human societies and cultures. Cultural anthropologists examine human thought, meaning, and behavior that is learned rather than genetically transmitted, and that is typical of groups of people.- Society: group of people who depend on one another for survival for survival or well-being, including status and roles (food, clothing, gender, entertainment) - Culture: learned behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups- Holism: approach that considers culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of humanity.- Ethnography: writing about people your working with- Artifact: an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.- Prehistoric: of, relating to, or denoting the period before written records.- Applied anthropology: Applied anthropology: the application of anthropology to the solution of human problems (social, political, economic problems). o Examples: medical anthropologistso Forensic anthropologists working with law enforcemento Studying consumer behavior-Etic vs. Emic: oEmic: examining society using concepts and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that cultureThinking your sick because of the weatheroEtic: examining society using concepts, categories, and rules, derived from science; an outsiders perspective that produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningfulScientific reason for illness- Culture-bound illness/syndrome: (Hikikomori, for example) culture specific, found in a certain place (bulimia and anorexia, anxiety and depression, Hikikomori)- Indigenous peoples: groups specially protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations.- Racism: the belief that some humans are superiorChapter 2, Lectures 2 Who are Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski and what was there contribution to cultural anthropology? Define and explain the terms: Fieldwork, Ethnocentrism, Cultural relativism, Moral relativism, Participant observation, Informant, Cultural shock, reverse culture shock, Native anthropology, and Informed consent. How has feminist anthropology changed anthropology? What is the debate regarding cultural anthropologists working the military?- Franz Boas: (1858-1942) born in Germany, trained early anthropologist, believed evolutionary anthropology was morally defective- these people were being very ethnocentric -Bronislaw Malinowski: (1884-1942) born in Poland, British anthropologist, long-term field work- WWI happened during his time, was in the islands for a few years; he found that these people were very logical and he figured this because he was there for so longoLong-term fieldwork: how culture changes over long periods of time- seasons, birth, traditions (ex. Fall= Halloween in the US)-Fieldwork: involves living with a group of people and participating in and observing their behavioroDocumentaries, photographs, articles oMistakes can be made oQuantitative: numbers oQualitative: data, thoughts, ideas - Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures from the perspective of one's own culture… that one's own culture is superior.- Cultural relativism: the notions that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and values… rather than according to the values of another culture. Suspending judgment to be unbiased- Moral relativism: the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. - Participant observation: gathering cultural data by observing people's behavior and participation in their lives-Informant: (respondent, interlocutor, consultant): a person from whom an anthropologist gathers dataoKey informant: gateway into that community, a person who has a lot of information or cultural knowledge, trusted by community, if associated with yourkey informant you will be trusted too- Cultural shock and reverse culture shock: feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from immersion in a new different cultureo Reverse culture shock: going back to reality to where you are originally from - Native anthropology: Native anthropologist: of the community of which they are studying o Pros: builds trust, better understanding o Cons: take certain things for granted- Informed consent: permission granted in the knowledge of the possible consequences, typically that which is given by a patient to a doctor for treatment with full knowledge ofthe possible risks and benefits.- Understand the debate regarding cultural anthropologists working the military: Anthropology and the military: current controversy- some believe that anthropologists are spies- How feminist anthropology changed anthropology? Feminist critique- Feminism: fightingfor equality between men and womenChapter 3, Lectures 3-4Define and explain the terms: Habitus, Symbol, Culture, Enculturation, Interpretive anthropology, Norm, Value, Subculture, Adaptation, Plasticity, and Transculturation.- Habitus: the often taken-for-granted ways of acting that are required through both individual and social experience- Symbol: something that stands for something else- Culture: the learned behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups. The primary means by


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