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IUPUI HIST 105 - Witches and Historians

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HIST 105 1nd Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. Community LifeII. No Religious TolerationIII. Why They FailedIV. World of WondersV. Salem- Feb. 1692Outline of Current Lecture I. Salem 1692II. Mean Little GirlsIII. HysteriaIV. FungusV. Community ConflictVI. Bad Puritan WomenVII. Powerful WomenVIII. Post-Traumatic StressIX. QuakersCurrent LectureI. Salem- Satellite Community- Rev. Parris- Tituba (fortune teller)- Girl’s Future (horrible life)- Freaked out (log, run, under chair)- Girls possessed, Tituba confessed- Who Else?These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Girls give more names- Usual Outbreak- Accused, arrested, trial, execution  Doesn’t happen in this case because there is no governor in Massachusetts More people accused -> Filled jailso 1692- New Governor Arrives- Over 100 in jail- First Women Hanged (6-10-1692)- Bridget Bishop (first)- 5 more sentenced, hang in August - 2 men executed 1 pressed to death with rocks- Giles Corey Rev. Burroughs- Hanged, not sure of guilt (Lord’s Prayer)- Why Execute 20? - Rest kept alive to name others, only those confess are executed- Brought to a halt by ministers outside of Salem  Question use of spectral evidence (evidence others can’t see)- Fall 1692- Trials Stop- May 2693- All jailed pardoned free- 15 children (5-16)- 10 years later- Apologized for executing 20 “witches”- Pardoned- 1992- set up new memorial for lives lost Historiography- the history of what historians have said about an event, person, etc. (all history will be told differently across time)1. New Sources2. New Methods3. Events in present day will cause historians to rethink history Earliest explanations of witch trials to present day II. Mean Little Girls- 18th century sources- trial records- Get attention- 1 source = letter written later in life by an accuser- Why would adult men pay attention if they are so far above women?  Major ProblemIII. Hysteria - 19th Century- development of the medical profession- Physical Symptoms - Got attention = kept it goingIV. Fungus- 1960s- Hallucinations (ergot poisoning)- Corn or wheat blast (black mold) Could have gotten in harvest- Looked at Puritan records No evidence in recordsV. Community Conflict- Adults? - Late 60s- Early 70s- Community Studies- reconstruct towns to look at everyday people.- New sources: a. Church recordsb. Land records c. Deeds, willsd. Public records - Boyer and Nissenbaum: Salem Possessed  Thought they would find rich vs. poor (Marxist Historians)- Not True Found that the conflict was between old town and new town - Salem Town and Salem Village  Family Feud- Porters vs. Putnams -- Porters (Salem Town) Merchants Overseas shipping  Successful  Cosmopolitan Anti-Rev Parris  Defend Witches  “Behind the scenes” - Putnams (Salem Village) Farmers  Successful, not in business Small town  Love Rev. Parris Accusers  “In your face” Note: Maps, Porter – Putnam marriage, land fight, “dinner table conversations”, explanations forlittle girl’s accusations VI. Bad (Unsuccessful) Puritan Women - John Putnam Domos- wrote book- Looked at women  Female Middle aged (40-60) Few or no children Stubborn, outspoken  Charged with slanderNote: Book written when women’s history became popularVII. Powerful Women - Carol Karlson- The Devil in the Shape of a Woman- Looked at all accused witches across New England- Femme Sole Women alone Unmarried- Act on own, own property, sue, be sued, transact business- Femme Covert Married women- Legal existence is suspended- Husband acts for her in legal business- Husband controls land (can do whatever he wants with it except sell it)- Can only sell if woman agrees- 60% of all accused women are femme soles with no male heirs- Land owners- How did they get land?- Why no heirs?- How did women get land and power? Made “deal with devil”- Seize land to pay for jail- Man gets land - Women found innocent cannot get land backVIII. Post-Traumatic Stress- In the Devil’s Snare- Mary Beth Norton- Wars with Native Americans in Maine- Accusers moved to Salem after Indians massacred whites- Trial Records Mention devil as looking like Indians - People running trials Judges- court officials feel guilty at not helping settlers in Maine- Written in early 2000sIX. Quakers - Many of the accused were friends of Quakers- Bad because they did not shun the Quakers like they were expected


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