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CSU BZ 110 - Antiparrallell

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BZ 110 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Continuation of eukaryotic cell cycle II. MitosisIII. MeiosisIV. Sources of genetic variationV. Molecular geneticsVI. Differences in DNA and RNA moleculesOutline of Current Lecture I. DNA: the genetic material (3.4)II. Gene expressionIII. Variation in chromosome numberIV. Chromosomal Aberration in HumansV. Inheritance patterns in Animals (3.5)VI. MutationsCurrent LectureI. DNA: the genetic material (3.4)- DNA is double stranded molecule, twisted into a right- handed helix- Two strands form together to form a helix- Compete spiral ever 10 base pairs of the molecule- Outside of the latter made up of alternating sugar-phosphate groups- Phosphate of nucleotide attaches to the 5th carbon of deoxyribose- Adjacent nucleotides attach by covalent bonds between phosphate of one nucleotide and the 3rd carbon of deoxyriboseThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- In DNA Adenine is always paired with thymine, guanine is always paired with cytosinei. This is called complimentary base pairingii. These are called complimentary strands- DNA is oriented so 3 carbons of deoxyribose in one strand is oriented the opposite direction if the 3 carbons on the other side.i. Makes 2 strands have opposite polarity, Antiparallel- DNA replication happens during the S phase of interphase- Enzymes separate the two strands- Complimentary bases align opposite templates- Enzymes link sugar-phosphate elements of aligned nucleotides into a continuous new strandII. Gene Expression- A gene is a section of DNA that codes for polypeptide or portion of polypeptide- Polypeptide: chain of amino acids, also called a protein- Sometimes proteins have two chains of polypeptides.- DNA does not leave the nucleusi. DNA contains the information for constructing polypeptideii. Protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, specifically in ribosomesiii. Ribosomes can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum - RNA molecules are transcribed from DNA inside the nucleus- mRNA (Messagner RNA) carries the genetic information to the cytoplasm (to ribosomes) for translation (protein synthesis)- Both transcription and translation are related to gene expression- Transcription: Occurs in the nucleus, when DNA is translated into protiens- Translation: occurs in the cytoplasm specifically in the ribosomes, it is protein synthesis- tRNA ( transfer RNA): Carry amino acids that were coded by mRNA to the ribosome for synthesis if the polypeptidei. read as triplets, each triplet is a specific amino acid ii. Codon: Each triplet, or three base combo- rRNA (ribosomal): Make up ribosomes along with protien- The Genetic Code: 64 codons of mRNA-III. Variation in chromosome number:- Polyploidy: duplication of entire sets of chromosomes (3N or more)i. rare in animals, common in plants- Aneuploidy: the addition or deletion of one or more chromosomesi. 2N+1 (trisomy)ii. 2N-1 (monosomy)- Non-disjunction: Failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate during meiosis I or meiosis IIi. can lead to trisomy or monosomic conditions-- Stop Codons: codons that done specify amino acids, when these are reached the synthesis is completed- Mutation: Change in the sequence of the DNA, results in a different amino acidIV. Chromosomal aberration of humans- Down syndrome (trisomy 21)- Turners syndrome (XO) Female- Klienfelters syndrome (XXY) male- Poly-X (triple X syndrome) Female- Jacobs syndrome (XYY) MaleV. Inheritance patterns in Animals- Gregor Mendel- Father of genetics, studied pea plants to understand gene transfer- Drosophila Melanogaster- this is a fruit fly that is commonly studied for inheritance patters- Wild type fly- shows traits, a characteristic similar to that found in wild animals- Principle of segregation: Paired genes (alleles) are separated and distributed during gamete formationi. Fertilization results in random combination of gametes and bring homologous chromosomes together again- Punnett Square: Help predict the results of crosses- Principle of independent assortment: during gamete formation, pairs of factors segregate independently of one anotheri. When the homologous chromosomes line up during metaphase I, then segregate, the behavior of one pair of chromosomes does not influence the behavior of any of the other pairs. - Human genetics: follow mendelling genetics, this implies there are two alleles associated with a gene, one allele is dominant one allele is recessive. VI. Mutations- Mutations: Change the base sequence of DNA- Can occur spontaneously or induced by radiation, chemicals, viruses- Point mutations may result from: substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotides- Can be induced by chemicals, radiation, viruses- Mutations in the germ-line cells can be passed to future generations- Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variationi. Mutations of the fuel for evolutionary change- Autosomal disorder of humans:i. Huntingtonsii. Marfan syndrome: only take a single dominant alleleiii. OMIMiv. Cystic fibrosisv. Tay- Sachsvi. Sickle-cell anemia1. Single base substitution (TA)2. mRNA codon (GAG


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