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PSY 231 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Last Lecture I. Review of course syllabus Outline of Current Lecture I. What is Human Development?II. Eight Periods of DevelopmentIII. The BasicsIV. Developmental ControversiesV. Lifespan PerspectiveVI. Theoretical BackgroundsVII. Research Designs- Developmental StyleCurrent LectureI. What is Human Development?a. A subfield of psychology about human developmentb. Devoted to studying constancy and change in the time of conception through deathc. Multidisciplinary fieldd. 3 Domainsi. Cognitive- changes in brain and information processingii. Emotional and social- bonding, affection, making friends, etc.iii. Physical- growth, weight, teeth, gait development, etc. II. Eight Period of Developmenta. Prenatali. From conception to birthii. Most rapid changes are seen in this periodb. Infancy and toddlerhoodi. From birth until age 2ii. Speech, crawling, walkingiii. Diet preferences developiv. Height and weight change quicklyv. Proportions become more normalvi. Form attachments with close family membersc. Early childhoodThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. From age 2 to age 6ii. More refined motor skills seeniii. More interest in interacting with other kidsiv. Enjoy “Make Believe” playv. Complex speech1. Detailed narratives2. Talkatived. Middle childhoodi. From age 6 to age 12ii. Spending more time away from home1. School2. Organized activity/sportsiii. Parents begin to have less control 1. Kids have their own preferences2. Teachers and coaches play rolesiv. Reading and writing skills develope. Adolescencei. From age 12* to age 181. *Adolescence is not necessarily strictly marked by age, but rather by pubertyii. Search for an identity1. Sexual identity2. Personal identity3. Occupational identityf. Early Adulthoodi. From age 18 to age 40ii. Occupation and goalsiii. Starting a familyg. Middle Adulthoodi. From age 40 to age 65ii. Become empty nesters as children leave the homeiii. Also known as the sandwich generation1. Still caring for their own children2. Now have to take care of aging parents as wellh. Late adulthoodi. From age 65 to deathii. Can be longer than any other period iii. Retirementiv. Losing loved onesv. Giving to the younger generationIII. The Basicsa. Individual differences exist, so averages are talked about when explaining developmental phenomenab. Multiple influences in growth and development, disease risk, and intelligencei. Heredity ii. Cultureiii. Social eventsc. Development is orderlyi. There is a certain order of progression in the lifespanii. Age-related normsIV. Developmental Controversiesa. Continuous or discontinuous?i. Continuous1. Life course is a steady slope2. Can predict later outcomes3. Example: height and weight, intelligence, etc.ii. Discontinuous1. Life course is more like a set of stairs graph2. Cannot predict what will happen in development3. Example: illness, eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, etc.b. Multiple courses or same road map?i. Multiple courses1. Everyone ends up in the same place, but took a different way to get therea. Childhood milestonesb. Walking and talking2. Individual experienceii. Same road map1. Everyone is exactly the same2. Identical experiencec. Nature vs. Nurture?i. Biology and environment both play a large role in developmentii. Controversy = which plays a bigger roleV. Lifespan Perspectivea. Development is…i. Lifelongii. Multidimensional1. Physical2. Cognitive3. Social4. Emotionaliii. Multdirectional1. Some things improve2. Others declineiv. “Plastic”1. Brains can be changed by experiences2. Birth through adolescence has the most plasticity in the brainv. Influenced by multiple, interacting forcesVI. Theoretical Backgroundsa. Psychoanalytical- how early experiences influences later experiencesi. Freud- Three parts of personality1. Id- pleasure principle2. Ego- middle ground of id and superego3. Superego- social conscious and moralityii. Psychosexual theoryb. Psychosocial Theoryi. Erik Eriksonii. Lifespan viewiii. Good side of the id  makes you relaxc. Behaviorism and Social Learning Theoryi. John Watson- “little albert,” conditioning experiment to be afraid of fuzzy white thingsii. B.F. Skinner- reinforcements and punishmentsiii. Albert Bandura- modelingd. Cognitive Development Theoryi. How kids’ thought patterns changeii. Jean Piagetiii. How kids constructed their knowledgeiv. Discontinuous theorye. Modern Day Theoriesi. Survival valueii. Information Processing1. Modern day view of Piaget2. Gradual change3. Continuous theoryiii. Vygotsky1. Needed to interact with other people for cognitive processing to change2. Social iv. Ecological Systems Theory1. Child is experiencing and influencing the world around them2. Affected by town, school, parents, culture, etc.3. YureBronfenbrennerVII. Research Designs- Developmental Stylea. Correlational Designi. One thing INFLUENCES anotherii. Does not imply causationb. Experimental Designi. Manipulated variable affects dependent variablec. Quasi-experimentsi. Don’t manipulate characteristicsii. Select those that already suffice a certain variableiii. A study, rather than an experimentd. Longitudinal Designi. Same group studied for a long period of timeii. Richer data setiii. Time consuming and expensivee. Cross-sectional Designi. Cross section of the populationii. Multiple ages studied at onceiii. Faster, less expensive, more commonf. Sequential Designi. Cross section of population followed over timeii. A combination of cross sectional and longitudinaliii. Cohort effects can be seen and limitediv. Best design for developmental psychv. Not as common—time consuming and


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