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TAMU ANSC 201 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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ANSC 281 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 12Review 1(February 12)History of the Horse-Fossils remains document presence of horses in North America during Tertiary period.( 58 million years ago)-No horses present when Columbus came (1492)Ancestors of the Horse Eocene (50 million years ago)- Eohippus-Earliest ancestor-Size of a dog/fox-Functional toes, 4 front, 3 hind -Lived in woods, browsersOligocene (30 millions years ago)- Mesohippus-Taller-Toes evolved, 3 front and hind -Side toes smaller and middle became stronger-Toes end in small hoof with padMiocene (20 million years ago)- Merychippus-First grazing horse -Size increased-Lived in herds -Lateral toes diminished-Main toe thickened -No padsPliocene (5 million years ago)- Pliohippus-First one toed horse-Teeth and limbs similar to present horse-Spread to South America, Asia, Europe, and Africa-Lateral toes became the lateral toesEquus (today)-Modern horse -Became extinct in the western hemisphere, but Spanish brought horses backBig Picture of Evolution-Reduction in the number of toes-Increase in size of cheek teeth and body size-Lengthening of faceDomestication and Wild Horses-Equus Caballus- modern horse, domesticated or feral-Equus Ferus Ferus- extinct tanpan from Russia-Equus przewalski- endangered Przewalski, never domesticated Equus Caballus-3 different body types: Light, Heavy, Pony- Other types of equids- donkeys, zebras-Uses: warfare, sports, and agriculture/transportation Breeds of Horses-Light- hot blooded-Heavy- draft, cold blooded - Warmblood- cross between hot and cold blooded-Pony- <14.2 handsBreed-Animals that, through selection and breeding, resemble one another and pass those traits to offspring.- Registered horse- 1 of a known horse heritage - Grade horse- unregistered(no papers)Light Horses- Oldest Foundation BreedsArabian- Egypt-Endurance, slender, dish faced, defined muzzle, swan like neck-Missing a vertebrae, shorter/smaller, flatter back, active registrationThoroughbred- England- Long distance racers, thicker boned, long with lean muscle, - Naturally bred, long strided, larger Breeds Developed in the U.SAmerican Quarter Horse- First registered horse was called Wimpy in 1941- Ranch horse, sprint quarter mile, more muscle and speedMorgan- Single foundation sire- Justin Morgan - Versatile, 2 different types: saddle and stocker, smaller and stocky, animated movements- Slope to shoulder, come in solid colors of brown, bae, chestnut, blackAmerican Saddlebred- Kentucky- Single foundation sire, tall and long, 5 gates, 2 of which were breed into them: rack and slowgateTennessee Walker- Mix with thoroughbred, standardbred, morgan, and saddlebred, More Arabian background- Big/tall/long, sickle-hocked, extra gate-running walk with no natural trot, soaring Standardbred- Harness racing, 2 gates for racing: trot and pace, long legged, angle and in shoulder & hock- More Arabian, larger horse U.S Color BreedsPalamino- Golden body with white mane and tail, van be registered as a quarterhorse Appaloosa- Still evolving, body color with white spots- 3 things needed for registration: striped hooves, white scalara, freckled skinAmerican Paint Horse- Created from quarterhorse association- if white appeared on the horse it couldn’t register asa quarterhorse, so they developed a separate registration known as the Paint horsePinto-Painted version of a palamino, only accepts color breedsDraft Breeds-Cold blooded, taller, docile, heavier bonedBelgian- Belgian - Heaviest draft breed, big, strong, endurance, stocky, big boned,docile- Minimal feathering, not flashy because meant for workingPercheron- France- Medium sized, athletic, lower body is heavier, used for making warm bloodsClydesdale- Scotland - Solid body color- bae, brown, with white feathering on lower legs, animated movementsShire- English- Tallest, solid body colors: black, bae, grey, with white hooves and featheringAmerican Cream- Iowa- Only U.S draft breed, small number, cream body color with amber colored eyeFriesian- Netherlands- Lighter more animated draft, athletic body, longer arched neck, huge, easygoing- Lots of hair don’t want whiteSuffolk- English- Shorter but stronger, deep bodies with short legs, no feathering or animation, used to pull thingsPony Breeds-Small horses bred with one anotherShetland- Scotland- 2 body sizes- draft and refined, stubborn and angry- Children horses, max height= 11.2 handsMiniature- Tiny, used as pets mostly, height done in inchesWelsh-Wales- Can be riding horses, athletic, any color but paint, different kinds for shows and registrations, 12- 14 handsEuropean Breeds- mostly warm bloodsCleveland Bay-British- Brown or bay solid color, looks like a warm blood- big boned, tall athletic- Thoroughbred ancestry, easy riding horsesSelle Francias- France- More lightbred, agility, energy, athletic- Has a more distinct neck coming from the ArabiansHanoverian- German- Versatile, competition horse, has more warm blood and thoroughbred backgroundTrakehner- German- Energetic, more warm blooded and Arabian background, tall, and more animatedAndalusian- Spanish- Older breed, well documented, most are grey, bigger, energetic but focused, easily trainedLipizzan- Australia - Used mostly for genetics and breeding, adavanced training process, athletic, talented- Old breed, usually not mature until 4/5, usually greyHaflinger- Austrian- Smaller, used for kids, pleasure horses, can be used for adults, chestnut with flaxen mane/tailNorwegian Fjord- Norway- Smaller, stocky, used for pulling carts and riding, fun horse, dun color, striped mane/tail andlegsSouth American BreedsPeruvian Paso- Peru- Mixed with Arabian, Spanish barbed, and Fresian, energetic, gate-broken pace, smaller- Light bined, smooth gate with paddling motion called termino, and animated movements Paso Fino- Colombia- Broken pace gate but straight legged, smooth gate, riding horseCriollo-Uruguay - Short, compact, stocky, stubborn, ranch worker, come in a in all colorsRussian BreedsOrlov- Russian- Trotter, from statndardbred, working horse, racers, grey or chestnutBashkir Curly- Russian - Curly haired, all colors, don’t shed as much, no allergiesSummary -Developed to meet all needs-Future of horse breeds-Variation within breeds compared to cross breedsMethods of identification-Physical description-Color, markings (face &legs), registration papers-describe horse with markings and has photo-Brands-Tattoo- mainly for racing industryColors and Markings-Body Color-Base


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