New version page

UM PSYX 233 - Representative Sampling

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 15

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 15 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 15 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Representative samplingWhat is your desired population?Income of all households in US?Bad samplesBetter samplesWhy does representative sampling matter?Makes results more validEthical ResearchMinimize risksIRBInformed consentAvoid deceptionDebriefingConfidential dataDe-identified dataCode names, no birthdays, no addresses etc.Lock and keyEncryptedAPA ethical: guidelinesLongitudinal designIntuitive way to study developmentPros:No cohort confoundSame individualsCons:SlowMay be costlyPractice effectExposure to a task makes you better over timeAttrition- loss of participantsOften very highGeneralizabilityExternal validityCross-sectional designPros:QuickCost effectiveCons:No continuity of infoCohort effectsContaminationConfounding variables (age vs. cohort)Extreme age group designAre results meaningful?Assumption valid?External and internalDesign variationsSequential designsExample: multi cross-sectional measurementsVery costlyMicro-genetic studyCritical periodsStudy analysisExploratory data analysisBoxplotsScatterplotsNumerical summariesStatistical/inferential analysisT-test between meansANOVAMeta-analysisExploratory data analysisGain general feel of dataStatistical methodsCurrent state of affairsIs the average height of men different from average height of women?PredictionWhat is the predicted height of the next person who walks into the room? Male or female?Why do we use stat. methods?To organize knowledge about the worldStudy of mind and bodyRene Descartes (1596-1650)Mind-body dualismWhere are we today?How are the mind and body related?Significance of biology and neuroscience?Importance of neuroscience for psychologyCan examine the mindNew research toolsBasic neuronNeuron communicationSalutatory conductionBiological circuitsCerebral lobesParietalTemporalOccipitalCerebellumFrontalEmotional systemLimbic system*amygdalaemotions*hippocampusmemoryconnection between^memories are stored based on emotionsVentromedial prefrontal cortexModulation of fear behaviorsappropriate responserelation to amygdalahigh and low roads of processingmotor systemprimary motor cortexplanning of movementscerebellumbasal gangliacarrying out/selecting behaviorwhich movements can I carry out?What is gerontology?The study of aging from maturity through old age, as well as the study of older adults as a special groupAgeismAging stereotypesPhysicalEx. Most people over 65 are physically impaired. Ex. Large percentages live in nursing homesFact: only 5% of older adults live in nursing homesCognitiveEx. people over 65 are unable to think clearly, remember well, or learn new things. A large percentage is “senile”Fact: only 5-7% have Alzheimer’sCrystallized: remembering words, definitions, fats etc.VS.Fluid: being able to perform tasks etc.Alzheimer’s: type of dementiaDementia: broadEmotionalEx. people over 65 are unhappyFact: rates of many emotional disorders are at their lowest among people over 65Sense of fulfillmentSocialPeople over 65 are isolatedAge sensitivityDevelop age empathyThe meaning of ageChronological age (function of the calendar)Time or age dependent processesNot result of age itselfThe aging processPrimary agingNatural process of agingThe passage of timeSecondary agingEnvironment, biological effects, etc.Parkinson’s diseaseTertiary agingRapid losses that occur shortly before deathTerminal dropThe life-span perspectiveTwo phasesEarly phase- childhood, adolescenceRapid age-related increases in peoples size and abilitiesLater phase- young adulthood, middle age, old ageChanges in size=slow, abilities continue to develop as people continue to adapt to their environments4 key featuresmulti-directionalitydevelopment involves both growth and declineas people grow in one area, they may lose in another at different ratesnon-lineargross motorphysicalintelligence (IQ)fluid vs. crystallizedplasticityones capability is not predetermined or concretemany skills can be trained or improved with practiceteach an old dog new tricksgaining skillstechnologyinteraction with environment (IQ)Flynn effect: every decade, the average IQ increases by 15Neural plasticityhistorical contexteach of us develops within a particular set of circumstances determined by the historical time in which we are born, and the culture in which we grow uplocationculturehistorical eventsex. the great depressionmultiple causationhow people develop results from a wide variety of forcesbiological, psychological, sociocultural, life-cyclepersonenvironmentnature vs. nurturegrowth->maintenance->loss regulationfeatures of life-span developmentage related changesreduction: amount and quality of biologically based resourcesincreased: amount and quality of cultural resources for continued growthdecline: efficiency with which cultural resources are usedlack of “old-age friendly” supportDemographics of agingUS trendsEducation & moneyFuture adults=more educatedBetter educated people live longerLongevity of lifeMore moneyAccess to good health careHealth/diseaseSocial securityFear that SS and pension systems will be drained, and health care will become increasingly unaffordableGlobal trendsIndustrialized countriesJapanIncreased number of elderly due to declining birth rateStrain on country’s resourcesDeveloping countriesIncrease in older adult populationStrain on resourcesImplications for health careOdds of older living parentDaily expenditureEconomic growth and workersBirth rateSupply and demandDistribution of aging populationGraphSocial cohesionPerspectivesIndividualismCollectivismForces of developmentBiologicalIncludes all genetic and health-related factors that affect developmentEx. menopause, wrinklingPsychologicalInclude all internal, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect developmentHelps make people uniqueSocioculturalInclude interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect developmentBio-psychosocial frameworkOrganizes biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human developmentEach person is the result of a unique combo of the 3 forcesLife-cycle forcesReflect differences in how the same event of combo of bio, psycho, and sociocultural forces effect people at different life pointsInterrelations among the forcesCohortA group of people born at the same point or specific time span in historical timeGreat depression3 influencesnormative age-graded influencesexperiences caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces that occur to most people of a particular agelife


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Representative Sampling and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Representative Sampling and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?