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PSY 274 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Book Notes: Ch. 1 - 38Thinking, Fast and Slow By Daniel KahnemanGeneral Idea: Daniel Kahneman outlines the way we think when approaching various situations as well as the dangers that can come from making assumptions, basing our decisions on intuition, and jumping to conclusions. By learning the way people think, we can understand why certain issues remain more relevant in society than others. Because many people are overconfident, they mostly follow intuition, and find cognitive effort unpleasant so they avoid it as much as possible. What people remembered and what actually happens is important when talking their happiness, also people are not entirely rational or irrational. Part 1:Chapter 1: Two Systems:1. System 1 – the part of consciousness that operates automatically and more intuitively with minimal effort. Other animals share this system, as it is a more innate of perceiving the world.Uses for System 1:- (Detect that one object is more distant than another, find the source of sound, or complete phrases)- Although some activities are voluntary, others like understanding sentences in your native language are involuntary.2. System 2— This is the conscious self that is needed in situations that require more effort therefore the brain needs more attention for these tasks. System 2 is slower as itconstructs thoughts in series of steps and deals with topics from previous experience and situations where a choice must be made.Uses for System 2:- System 2 requires attention but can be disrupted when attention is drawn away. (Ex. Brace for starter gun in race, maintaining faster walking speed than is natural for you)- System 2 can influence how system 1 works by programming normally automatic functions to require more attention. (Ex. you can deliberately set a faster walking pace)- Still, intense focusing can make people blind to stimuli that normally attract attention (Ex. distracting a driver, the “Invisible Gorilla” video where people watch how many times a basketball is passed but completely miss the gorilla that walked across)***Usually, people consider themselves to run mostly on System 2 because with this system we make rational choices. But in reality, people use system 1 for the most part because it is through this system that we can effortlessly or automatically form ideas or make quick decisions.Both Systems….- System 1 and System 2 are both active any time we are awake. The division of labor helps us to be more efficient- System 1 runs automatically, it generates suggestions for System 2, impressions and intuitions turn into beliefs, and impulses turn into voluntary actions. If all goes smoothly, System 2 adopts suggestions of System 1.- Because System 1 is more automatic, System 2 is normally in a low-effort mode.- When System 1 needs more help, system 2 adds detail and specific processing to solve a problem that System 1 couldn’t. - System 2 is continually monitoring our behavior (our ability to maintain control when angry) - Most of what you think and do (your System 2) originates in your S1, but S2 takesover when things get difficult, and it normally has the last word.- S1 has biases, systematic errors. (Our S1 says that the diagram that looks like an arrow is shorter when in actuality the lines are the same length. This is because S1operates automatically and cannot be turned off at will.)- System 1 has little understanding of logic and statistics- Because System 1 cannot be turned off there is conflict between an automatic reaction and control. (Ex. Trying not to stare at oddly dressed couple.)= The best we can do is a compromise to learn to recognize situations in which mistakes are likely and try harder to avoid them. P. 28 .They are not distinct entities but interactive,and just ways for us to understand how we think.Chapter 2: Attention and Effort- The pupils of the eye indicate current rate at which mental energy is used.- Response to mental overload: System 2 ensures problem receives the attention it needs; “spare capacity” is sent to other tasks once this occurs. - This is due to our evolution as humans. Responding quickly to threats improved chances of survival. - As you improve in a task, the energy needed diminishes. (Studies of the brain show pattern of activity in a task changes as skill increase and less brain regions are involved.) Talent has similar effects.- General “law of least effort” for both cognitive and physical exertion—if there are several ways of achieving he same goal, people will eventually do it as easily as possible- In economy of action, effort is a cost and the balance of benefits and costs drives the acquisition of skill but laziness is built deep into our nature. - System 2 can program memory to obey an instruction that overrides habitual responses (Ex. counting all the fs on the page.)- Ability to control attention is not simply a measure of intelligence - We avoid mental overload by dividing tasks into multiple steps.Chapter3: The Lazy Controller- System 2—has natural speed but if forced to speed beyond natural rhythm, causes deliberate thought.- Law of least effort: Frequent switching of tasks and speeded-up mental work are not intrinsically pleasurable, and people avoid them when possible. - Busy and Depleted System 2- People who are cognitively busy are also more likely to make selfish choices, use sexist language, and make superficial judgments in social situations.- Cognitive load is not the only cause of weakened self-control (drinks or sleeplessness). The self-control in morning people is impaired at night; the reverseis true of night people.- Self-control requires attention and effort—controlling thoughts and behaviors is one of the tasks System 2 performs.- Situations & tasks that use up self-control (All involve conflict and the need to suppress a natural tendency:o Avoiding the thought of white bearso Inhibiting the emotional response to a stirring filmo Making a series of choices that involve conflicto Trying to impress otherso Responding kindly to a partner’s bad behavioro Interacting with a person of a different race (for prejudiced individuals)- Things that show you have used up a lot of self control:o Deviating from one’s dieto Overspending on impulsive purchaseso Reacting aggressively to provocationo Performing poorly in cognitive tasks and logical decision making- Ego depletion is partly cause by a loss of motivation. After


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