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CU-Boulder LING 2400 - Linguistics 2400

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Definitions we will use in this courseSex: “Sociocultural differentiation of female and make using biological justification”Gender: “Sociocultural differentiation of female and male (feminine/masculine) using sociocultural justification”Sexuality: “Erotic or reproductive orientation and practice”Phonetics/PhonologyPhonetics: The study of the inventory and structure of the sounds of a languagePhonology: The study of the elements and principles of the structure of a languagePitch:Intonation:High rising of intonational contourSociolinguistic VariationSociolinguistic variable“kite” region“them” class/ethnicity“sick” gender/sexualitygoin’goinggoingMorphologyThe system of categoriesWomen:VaginaPussyCuntClitorisUrethraRoast beef curtainsVulvaWhispering eyePoonPoon/pooty tangCamel toeMen:PenisFamily jewelsJimmy johnsonDickBalls100% all beef thermometerTesticlesBallsackLunchboxSyntaxThe system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language“Standard” vs. “nonstandard” grammerI didn’t do anything.I ain’t done nothing.PragmaticsThe study of how context and situation affect meaning(the study of how what is conveyed outstrips what is literally said)DiscourseThe study of spoken or written language use in particular social situations (beyond the level of the sentence)How men and women are talked about (representation)How men and women talk (practice)Gender differences in the performance of intellectual tasksMenMen tend to perform better than womenWomenNavigating SpaceMenMen also tend to be better than women at certain kinds of mathematical reasoning, such as navigating their way through a maze.WomenBut women appear to be superior in what scientists refer to as landmark memory.Problems with this research?Potential bias in scientific testsDifficultiesThe Social “Reading” of BiologyCritiquing JespersonPre-industrialized groups or tribes EarlyReasons offered by Jesperson for gendered language in “primitive” societiesTabooGendered division of laborReasons offered by Jesperson for gendered language in “civilized” societiesPublic vs. Private distinctionsSocial ClassConservativism vs. InnovationThoughtlessness vs. ReflectionMainstream vs. Extreme OrientationsGeorge LakeoffCognitive linguist at UC BerkeleyArgued Republicans won elections through their strategic use of framingWorked with Democrats to develop new framing devices for their ideas and…FeminismAn out of date definition?Anyone who believes that women and men should have equivalent rights and representation economically, politically, legally, and sociallySemantic pejorationWhere a perfectly neutral term becomes a bad thingWhat does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis have to do with gender?Grammatical Gender vs. Social GenderEnglish is said to have a social gender, not grammatical gender, whereby nouns referred to as she have actual feminineTypes of CategorizationsPolar Opposites vs. Private RelationsLinguistics 2400 01/14/2015Definitions we will use in this course-Sex: “Sociocultural differentiation of female and make using biological justification”-Gender: “Sociocultural differentiation of female and male (feminine/masculine) using sociocultural justification”-Sexuality: “Erotic or reproductive orientation and practice”Phonetics/Phonology-Phonetics: The study of the inventory and structure of the sounds ofa language-Phonology: The study of the elements and principles of the structureof a language-Pitch: -Intonation: oHigh rising of intonational contourSociolinguistic Variation-Sociolinguistic variableo“kite” regiono“them” class/ethnicityo“sick” gender/sexualityogoin’ogoingogoingMorphologyoThe system of categoriesWomen:VaginaPussyCuntClitorisUrethraRoast beef curtainsVulvaWhispering eyePoonPoon/pooty tangCamel toeMen:PenisFamily jewelsJimmy johnsonDickBalls100% all beef thermometerTesticlesBallsackLunchboxSyntax-The system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language-“Standard” vs. “nonstandard” grammeroI didn’t do anything.oI ain’t done nothing.Pragmatics-The study of how context and situation affect meaning-(the study of how what is conveyed outstrips what is literally said)Discourse-The study of spoken or written language use in particular social situations (beyond the level of the sentence)-How men and women are talked about (representation)-How men and women talk (practice)Gender differences in the performance of intellectual tasks-MenoMen tend to perform better than women-Womeno-Navigating SpaceoMenMen also tend to be better than women at certain kinds of mathematical reasoning, such as navigating their waythrough a maze.oWomenBut women appear to be superior in what scientists refer to as landmark memory.-Problems with this research?oPotential bias in scientific testsoDifficultiesooThe Social “Reading” of BiologyCritiquing Jesperson-Pre-industrialized groups or tribes Early -Reasons offered by Jesperson for gendered language in “primitive” societiesoTaboooGendered division of labor-Reasons offered by Jesperson for gendered language in “civilized” societiesoPublic vs. Private distinctionsoSocial ClassoConservativism vs. InnovationoThoughtlessness vs. ReflectionoMainstream vs. Extreme OrientationsGeorge Lakeoff-Cognitive linguist at UC BerkeleyoArgued Republicans won elections through their strategic use of framingoWorked with Democrats to develop new framing devices for their ideas and…Feminism-An out of date definition?oAnyone who believes that women and men should have equivalent rights and representation economically, politically, legally, and socially-Semantic pejorationoWhere a perfectly neutral term becomes a bad thingWhat does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis have to do with gender?Grammatical Gender vs. Social Gender-English is said to have a social gender, not grammatical gender, whereby nouns referred to as she have actual feminineTypes of Categorizations-Polar Opposites vs. Private


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