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ISB 201 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. How do we measure success of insects?II. Symmetry in Animals III. Binomial nomenclature IV. Success of insects Outline of Current LectureI. Quiz QuestionsII. ReproductionIII. Exoskeleton Current LectureI. Quiz Questionsa. Describe life-cycle of mosquitoi. Eggs (water)  larvae (water)  pupa (water) adult (air)b. List three diseases transmitted by mosquitos i. Malaria, yellow fever, west Nilec. Why mosquito and housefly eradication programs failed with DDT?i. Became resistant d. What is the relationship between biotic potential and rate of adaptation?i. Biotic potential : ability for organisms to reproduce and live1. Insects have high biotic potential because they reproduce a lot2. Drosophila (fruit fly) breeds 25 generations in one yearii. Genetic mutation: natural process that occurs every time there is genetic replication; genetic variability results1. Mutations on genes can cause variation ex: height, eye color2. Mistakes between genes effects are usually minimal and often no change3. Important for adaptationiii. Adaptation: trait (physical form, function, behavior) that helps an individual survive and reproduce **benefit that is passed on1. Leaf bugs: over time changing to appear like a dead leaf to protect against leaf cutter ants that gather healthy leavesiv. ***higher biotic potential higher mutation rate and greater chance for beneficialmutations and higher chance for adaptatione. Harmful v. beneficial mutationsi. Dependent on surroundings and environment color, temp ect.II. ReproductionThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Parthenogenesis: (a sexual reproduction); embryo doesn’t need to be fertilizedi. Pros: 1. Only 1 organism needed to reproduce2. No energy wasted on finding a mate3. Produce many offspring4. Produce clonesii. Cons:1. Decreased genetic variability 2. Susceptible to environmental changeb. Diapause: hibernation; time of reduced metabolism allowing insects to get through difficult environmental periodsi. Winter, droughts, food shortagesii. Mosquito eggs and corn root worms are examplesc. Metamorphosis: animal developed where the organism goes through a change in form from birth to adulti. Ametabolous without1. Egg young adult adult2. Ancient condition; mostly wingless insects3. Ex: collembola (snow flea)ii. Hemimetabolous incomplete1. Egg immature (nymph) adult2. More recent evolution3. Ex: milkweed bugiii. Homometabolous complete1. Egg larvae pupa adult2. Most recent evolutionIII. Exoskeltona. Pros: i. Strong/ protective, rigidii. Water proofiii. Place of attachment iv. Keeps out of bacteriab. Cons: i. Heavyii. Inflexible- limits mobility iii. Must molt-


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