New version page

UAB CH 115 - Exam 1 Study Guide

This preview shows page 1-2-3 out of 9 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 9 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Econ 101 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 (January 7)- Chemistry is the study of matter and its transformations.- Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space.- Element – a substance that cannot be changed by chemical reaction into two or more new substances. The building blocks of all substances. - Compound – a substance that contains two or more elements. Unlike elements, compounds can be decomposed chemically into simpler compounds and/or elements. Examples of compounds are salt (NaCl2), sugar (C12H22O11) and water (H2O).- Atom – the smallest particle of an element that embodies the chemical properties of thatelement. Every atom contains an extremely small, extremely dense nucleus (the nucleusis the center of an atom). Nearly all of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus.The nucleus is surrounded by a much larger volume of nearly empty space that makes upthe rest of the atom.- Atomic Theory – All matter is composed of atoms; All atoms of a particular elementhave the same chemical properties; Compounds are formed by the chemical combinationof two or more different kinds of atoms; A chemical reaction involves joining,separating or rearranging atoms- Molecule – a collection of atoms connected by bonds. They are the smallest part of acompound. Examples of compounds are N2, H2, and Br2 (Nitrogen, Hydrogen andBromine)- Chemical symbol – the one or two letter abbreviation for the name of an element. Examples: H, O, C, Fe, Cu, Ar (*NOTE: Not all symbols reflect their elements. Some symbols reflect their Latin names, such as Au, Ag, Fe, and Cu – Gold, Silver, Iron and Copper)- Chemical formula – symbols of different kinds of atoms written together with subscripts showing how many atoms of each kind are in a molecule. Examples: H2O, CO2, MgCl2, N2, O2- Metals – Makes up the largest portion of the periodic table. Good conductors ofelectricity; lustrous (shiny i.e. platinum); ductile (can be drawn into wires i.e. tin);malleable (can be rolled into sheets i.e. aluminum); solids at room temperature, EXCEPTfor Mercury (Hg).- Nonmetals – Usually do not conduct electricity; most exist as gases (at room temperature) – bromine is a liquid and carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine are brittle solids- Metalloids – Lustrous and less conductive than metals (semiconductors); brittle- The columns of the periodic table are called groups or families.- The rows on the periodic table are called periods.- Starting from the left side, the first group is consists of the alkali metals (these will all violently react with water).- The next group directly adjacent from them is called the alkaline metals.- The transition metals are located in the center of the table, next to the alkaline metals.- The last 3 groups are the chalcogens, halogens and noble gases.Lecture 2 (January 9) Waves - Disturbances in space. Waves occur in water, sound, and light. Parts of a Wave: Peak The highest point in a wave. Trough – The lowest point in a wave. Amplitude – The height of a wave; can be positive or negative. Wavelength – The length between 2 waves’ peak or trough. Wavelength is depicted by the Greek symbol Lambda Frequency – the number of complete waves passing a point in a given amount of time. Frequency is depicted by the Greek symbol Nu. Speed of Light – Absolutely fastest speed anything in the universe can go. The numerical valueof the speed of light is 2.998 x 108 meters/second. The speed of light is depicted by alower case “c”. Electromagnetic radiation – a kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously. All electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light (2.998 x 108 m/s). Planck’s Constant – 6.626 x 10^-34 J*sLecture 3 (January 12) Photoelectric Effect – electrons leave metals when light shines on it.  E= energy, J= joules, and n=the energy level Each line in the line emission spectrum represents an energy levelLecture 4 (January 14)o Wave-Particle Duality – Having the same properties as a wave and a particle. Originallypresented by Louis de Broglie.o Electrons go through diffraction and can interact with each other as waves, but they also act as electric charges and have particle-like mass.o Light is seen as a wave because it candiffract, reflect, refract, and interfere likeall other waves.  DeBroglie wavelengthequationo Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – It’s impossible to know the exact position andexact momentum of an object simultaneouslyo Quantum Numbers Principal quantum number: n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...o Determines relative energy & orbital size Subsidiary quantum number: l = 0, 1, 2, …, (n‐1)o Determines orbital shape (& some energy) Magnetic quantum number: ml = (-l, …, 0, …, l)o Determines orientation Spin quantum number: ms = +½ or ‐½o Determines spin- The principal quantum number defines a “shell.”- The principal and subsidiary quantum numbers define a “subshell.”- The principal, subsidiary and magnetic quantum numbers define an “orbital.”- All four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms) define a specific electron.- The principal quantum number corresponds to the energy level (n=1 is the first energy level or “ground state”).- These energy levels are the same as the periods (rows) of the periodic table (i.e. Hydrogen is in the n=1 level)Lecture 5 (January 16) The principal quantum number at the lowest energy level (which is n = 1; l = 0) is simply the shape a sphere. The n = 1 energy level is also known asthe s – orbital.  When drawing the s – orbital, simply draw a circle. It can beshaded or unshaded. As “n” increases, the size gets bigger and starts to have different shapes (determined by the subsidiary quantum number). When n = 2 and l = 1, the shape resembles the number “8” or a dumbbell. This is now the p – orbital.  When drawing the p – orbital, simply draw the number “8”. Make sure one half of the 8 is shaded and the other half is not. The half you choose does not matter.  Pay attention to axis labels: there are 3 orientations for the p – orbital: px, py, and pz. If you are sketching px, then you must ensure that the shape of the figure 8 is sideways (like an infinity symbol) so that it lies along


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?