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U-M ANTHRCUL 101 - Meet the Primates

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ANTHRCUL 101 1st Edition Lecture 10Outline of Last Lecture Exam 1Outline of Current Lecture I. Why study primates?II. What is a primate?III. Where do primates live?IV. Who are the primates?V. How do they make a living?VI. How are primates similar to humans?VII. ReviewCurrentLecture2/9: Meet the PrimatesGuest Lecturer: Professor John MitaniI. Why study primates?a. Provide the standard to assess human uniqueness – helps us understand what makes humans different from the rest of the biological worldb. Primates inform us about the changes that must have taken place during the course of our own evolutioni. Chimp, bonobo, human, gorilla – share common ancestorii. How do we get around differently?1. Chimps: walk on all four, knuckle walkers – humans walk bipedalII. What is a primate?a. Anatomical and behavioral features that primates inherited from a common ancestor:i. Grasping hands and feetii. Nails instead of clawsiii. Increased reliance on vision1. Primates depend on vision more than other mammals (bats use echolocation/sonar, hippos use olfaction)iv. Reduced dependence on olfaction (smell)v. Generalized dentition (teeth) These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. Because we eat a wide variety of things2. Other animals have more specialized – lionsvi. Primates live long livesvii. Develop slowly (prolonged infant dependency)viii. Give birth to one infant at a time, with mothers displaying extensive parental careix. Large brainsIII. Where do primates live?a. Primate geographic distribution: about 400 species, mostly tropical b. Habitats:i. Moist rainforests, scrubbier rainforests, sometimes woodlands1. Rarely savannah IV. Who are the primates?a. Strepsirrhinesi. Lemurs and Lorises1. Geographic distribution: parts of Africa and Asia, lemurs very rare – only in Madagascar2. Includes: Slow Loris, Galago (bush baby), Ring-tailed Lemurb. Haplorrhinesi. Tarsiers1. Behaviorally similar to strepsirrhines – solitary, nocturnal 2. Very rare and endangered, live in southeast Asian archipelagoii. Monkeys – New World & Old World1. New world: US side of Atlantica. Atelids – ex:Muriqui (spider monkey) – one of biggest of new world monkeys – large male genitalia (find out why in his class next fall!)b. Cebis – ex: capuchin monkeyc. Pithecids – ex: uakari2. Old World: Africa, asiaa. Cercopithecines – ex: baboonsb. Colobines – ex: languri. Specialized leaf eaters: high crested molars like scissors, chambered stomach 3. Can tell new world or old world by nosesa. New world: Small nasal slits, flare out, separated by septumb. Old world: nose like humans – rounded nasal openings that face forward and downwardiii. Apes1. Our closest living relatives2. Planet of the Apes gets it backwards: apes used to rule the worlda. Miocene epoch 23-5 million years ago3. Kinds of apesa. Gibbonsb. African: chimps bonobo gorilla4. Ca. 40 genera5. Cs. 100 species of apesiv. Humansc. Distinction: haplorrhines are large, strepsirrhines are smalli. Haplorrhines possess larger brains for their body sizeii. Haplorrhines see the world in color, strepsirrhines see world in black and whiteiii. Strepsirrhines possess a tapetum – layer of cells along back of retina that help with night vision (reflective)iv. Strepsirrhines are nocturnal, haplorrhines are diurnal (awake in the daytime)v. Strepsirrhines are solitary, haplorrhines are gregarious and social (usually move about with other members of own species)V. How do they make a living?a. The twin problems of feeding and predationi. Eating1. Spend up to half of waking hours eating, digesting, etc.2. Food types: leaves, underground storage organs (roots, tubers), gums of trees, flowers, fruits, meat3. Primates make and use tools to acquire and process fooda. Jane Goodall first scientist to make this connection: now can’t use tool-making as a way to define humansb. Regional variations in tool-usei. West Africa use stones to crack open nuts – not in East Africa (where there are same nuts, same stones)ii. Variations learned through social transmission4. Live in complicated habitats – instead of being nomadic, they limit movements to a home range: area covered during normal movements and activitiesii. Evading predators1. Snakes, raptors, carnivores2. Chimps eat red colobus monkeys3. Primate gregariousness: seek safety in numbers4. Most monkeys and apes are social – not orangutansa. Not closed communities: some leave (sometimes leave after reaching sexual maturation)b. Wont mate with close genetic relativeVI. How are primates similar to humans?a. Evolutionary relationships of apes and humansi. Anatomical evidence1. Similar skeletonsii. Genetic evidenceiii. Behavioral1. Tool use2. Communication (use many of same postures and gestures as humans)a. Ex: begging with open paw3. Social interactions: a. Bromance in chimps? YESb. Form friendships that can last up to a decade – will form coalitions in which two or more individuals will gang up on anotherc. Trade grooming services – you help me, I’ll help you4. Territorialitya. Chimps are aggressive to members of other communities b. Sometimes male chimps escalate this behavior to the pointthat they kill neighbors5. Non-reproductive functions of sexa. Bonobos mate without intention of reproductioni. Female sexual swelling (when in reproductive conditions)ii. Rub each other’s genitals quite violently to express closenessVII. Reviewa. Some primate behavioral characteristicsi. Generalist feeders,ii. Group living iii. Meat eatersiv. Tool manufacture and usev. Inbreeding avoidancevi. Complex social relations b. Despite superficial similarities between humans and nonhuman primates, we arevery


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