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Gay men experience more homophobic reactions, discrimination than lesbiansWomen less negative about homosexuality than menMost negative attitudes are from straight men about gay menHomophobia: strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexualityCorrelated with:Having little/no contact with homosexuals and bisexualsAge and education (older, less education—more homophobia)Conservative religious beliefsTraditional attitudes about genderBeing less sexually permissiveRigid/authoritarian personality traitsBiphobia: negative attitudes about bisexualityTransphobia: negative attitudes about people who are transgenderHeterosexism: refers to the assumption that all people are heterosexual and that heterosexuality is superior/more desirableHeterosexual orientation/relationships are the normEven if homosexuality is accepted, still not “normal” or “good”LGBT people may suffer from “internalized homophobia/biphobia/transphobia”Can lead to lower self-esteem and increase shame and psychological distressMay lead to guilt, confusion, attempt to changeReparative therapy: attempts to change a person’s sexual orientation from homosexual/bisexual to heterosexualNo reliable research to support effectivenessMajority of professional organizations (APA) oppose it because it doesn’t generally work and it often causes damage to the individualProfessionals: as hard to “turn straight” as it is to turn a straight person gayTheories about Causes of Sexual OrientationBiological TheoriesEssentialist theory: assumes homosexuals, bisexuals are innately different from heterosexualsAssumes that different sexual orientations caused by differences in physiologyGenetics:More recent research:Genes account for ~35% of variability in men, ~19% in womenHormones:Prenatal hormonesAdult hormones: no consistent significant differencesBirth Order- the more older brothers a man has, the more likely he is to be gay“Maternal immune hypothesis”Differences in brain structureDifferences in size/activation of parts of hypothalamus between homosexual and heterosexual menDifferences in corpus callosum, size of hemispheresTake home message: some evidence for biological differences, but still under investigationGender-role Non-conformityKids who exhibit cross gender behavior, interests more likely to be homosexual as adultsNot identifying with men/boys as child may lead to unfulfilled need for male affection = gay orientationBehaviorist TheoriesHomosexuality is a learned behaviorRewarding sexual experience with same sex + punishing experience with opposite sex = homosexualPSYCH 3260 1st Edition Lecture 11Outline of Last Lecture I. Sexual Orientationa. Kinseyb. KleinII. Frequency of HomosexualityIII. Attitudes about HomosexualityIV. Social Stigmaa. Institutional discriminationOutline of Current Lecture I. Social Stigmaa. Institutional discrimination cont.b. Homophobiac. Biphobiad. Transphobiae. HeterosexismII. Theories about Causes of Sexual Orientationa. Biological Theoriesb. Gender-role Non-conformityc. Behaviorist TheoriesCurrent Lectureo Gay men experience more homophobic reactions, discrimination than lesbianso Women less negative about homosexuality than menThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. Most negative attitudes are from straight men about gay men - Homophobia: strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexualityo Correlated with: Having little/no contact with homosexuals and bisexuals  Age and education (older, less education—more homophobia) Conservative religious beliefs Traditional attitudes about gender  Being less sexually permissive  Rigid/authoritarian personality traits - Biphobia: negative attitudes about bisexuality- Transphobia: negative attitudes about people who are transgender- Heterosexism: refers to the assumption that all people are heterosexual and that heterosexuality is superior/more desirableo Heterosexual orientation/relationships are the normo Even if homosexuality is accepted, still not “normal” or “good”- LGBT people may suffer from “internalized homophobia/biphobia/transphobia”o Can lead to lower self-esteem and increase shame and psychological distresso May lead to guilt, confusion, attempt to change Reparative therapy: attempts to change a person’s sexual orientation from homosexual/bisexual to heterosexual  No reliable research to support effectiveness  Majority of professional organizations (APA) oppose it becauseit doesn’t generally work and it often causes damage to the individual  Professionals: as hard to “turn straight” as it is to turn a straight person gay  Theories about Causes of Sexual OrientationBiological Theories- Essentialist theory: assumes homosexuals, bisexuals are innately different from heterosexualso Assumes that different sexual orientations caused by differences in physiology- Genetics:o More recent research: Genes account for ~35% of variability in men, ~19% in women- Hormones:o Prenatal hormoneso Adult hormones: no consistent significant differences - Birth Order- the more older brothers a man has, the more likely he is to be gay o “Maternal immune hypothesis”- Differences in brain structureo Differences in size/activation of parts of hypothalamus between homosexual and heterosexual meno Differences in corpus callosum, size of hemispheres - Take home message: some evidence for biological differences, but still under investigationGender-role Non-conformity-Kids who exhibit cross gender behavior, interests more likely to be homosexual as adults-Not identifying with men/boys as child may lead to unfulfilled need for male affection = gay orientationBehaviorist Theories-Homosexuality is a learned behavioro Rewarding sexual experience with same sex + punishing experience with opposite sex =


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