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UNT PSCI 1050 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 5Lecture 1 (January 22)American Government: Processes and Policies - Define government and politics - Define democracy- Discuss theories of democracy (Rational choice theory)- Introduce Public Policy Government- Government is defined as the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for society. - Government typically provides services, collect taxes, and maintain order. Politics - Politics is defined as the process of selecting our governmental representatives and what policies they produce. (systems of government requires compromise and bargaining) - Politics in a democracy concerns who participates and how. Democracy- Democracy is defined as a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents the public’s preferences. - Democracy requires the following equality in voting, citizen control of agenda, popular consent, and personal liberty. Views of democracy - The traditional view - The contemporary view Group theories of democracy - Pluralism: politics is a competition among groups and the public interest prevails. - Elite and class theory: groups with money will have the power and influences; groups are not equal. - Hyperpluralism: groups are too strong and dominate all politics; weakens democracy. Rational choice theory - Rational choice theory is where individuals act in their own self-interest. We do whatis best for us. Public policy - A policy is defined as a choice government makes in response to a public concern. - In American democracy, people express policy concerns through linkage institutions(parties, media, etc.) and action taken by policymaking institutions(congress, president). Lecture 2 (January 27) PSCI 1050 1st EditionFoundations of Government (The Constitution and Federalism)- Constitutions what they are - US Constitution: a product of rational self interest- The Madisonian Model- Foreign policy and the Constitution - Federalism and public policy Constitutions - Are defined as a nation’s fundamental law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in a government. - Constitutions can dictate what government can and can not do.US Constitution -A product of competing interest’s intent on furthering own self interest. (North vs. South) (States vs. Federal Government) -Self interest and compromise help create constitution. Federalist #10 -Madison organized factions(parties or groups) that could destroy the new republic. -Human behavior (Virtue, Interest, Passion) Madisonian Model - Limiting majority control - Separating powers- Creating checks and balances- Federalism - The constitutional republic- Favors the status quoConstitution and Foreign Policy - Constitutional checks and balances (congress and president) - Shared war powers in US Constitution - Constitution sets broad parameters but leaves much open to developmentLecture 3 (January 29) Foundations of Government (The Constitution and Federalism)- Foreign policy and the Constitution - Federalism and public policy Federalism and the Constitution - Constitution checks powers horizontally and vertically. - A vertical check on powers is where federal government “checks” state power and opposite as well. Federalism - Is a way of organizing a nation so two or more levels of government have a formalauthority over the land and people. - It is important because it decentralizes our politics and policies. Federalism and the Constitution - The Division of power (Article VI: Supremacy Clause) federal government is superior to states- Although states have their own power and authority (Amendment 10) - Establishment of National Supremacy (McCulloch vs.Maryland) Federalism and Public Policy - Successful implementation of policy requires cooperation between states and federal government. - Federalism ensures federal government is supreme but that states play a vital role in the policy process. Public Policymaking - What is public policy? - How is policy made?- What is the policy process and how does it shape public policymaking? Policy- Is defined as a choice government makes in response to a political issue or public concern. Three types of policy are Congressional statue Presidential action Court decision, budgetary choices, regulation. Economic Policy- Monetary Policy and Federal Reserve Board - Fiscal Policy and the federal budget The Policy Process (Is also known as the stages approach)1. Problem identification 2. Agenda setting3. Formulation 4. Adoption (Then budgeting) 5. Implementation 6. Evaluation Lecture 4 (February 3) Public Policymaking- What is public policy? - How is policy made?- What is the policy process and how does it shape public policymaking? Problem Identification - A problem comes up when citizens think that a current condition that a current condition that they face is unreasonable.- Policy problem is defined as a situation that produces needs and for which relief from government action is sought. Policy Agenda - Policy Agenda consists of issues that attract the serious attention of public officials. - When people disagree about a problem political issues arise. Agenda Setting- An issue reaches agenda status when there is enough support for the issue in a competitive political environment. - Policy making and linkage institutions can all affect the agenda. Types of Agenda - Systemic (discussion) - Institutional (action)- Mandatory (the budget)- Discretionary (health care reform) Today’s Agenda - Top five categories are the economy and jobs, terrorism, health care, immigration, and the federal deficit. Lecture 5 (February 5) Public Policymaking- What is public policy? - How is policy made?- What is the policy process and how does it shape public policymaking? Formulation- Once on the agenda policymakers start to formulate policy solutions or a course of action that can be taken. - Any of the policymaking or linkage institutions may formulate policy. Adoption- Is the approval of policy proposal most of the time through the lawmaking process. - Requires action by governmental official to adopt or reject a policy idea. Implementation - Is the process of carrying out public policiesEvaluation - Policy evaluator want to know if the policy accomplished what it intended to accomplish and if it was


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