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UB UGC 111 - Egypt

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UGC 111 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture I. MesopotamiaII. Early StatesOutline of Current Lecture III. EgyptIV. Egyptian social structureV. PharaohsVI. PyramidsVII. Egyptian beliefs of the afterlifeCurrent LectureEgypt:- Second major ancient civilization after Mesopotamia - Located along the Nile River – nicknamed the “Nile River Valley”- Discovery:- Napoleon Bonaparte sent people to Egypt to study, who then documented the area by writing 23 volumes - Rosetta Stone- Considered a sort of “treaty” - Text written in 3 different languages: Egyptian hieroglyphics, Egyptian cursive, and ancient Greek- Provided the modern day interpretation and knowledge of Egyptian hieroglyphics- Aida, G. Verdi (Cairo, 1871): very popular opera that later contributed to the national anthem of EgyptSocial Structure:King/Pharaoh – the most powerful leader to ever existPharaoh’s courtEgyptian NobilityArtisans/CraftsmanPeasantryPharaohs:- Divine, living God These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- “Unifier of Egypt”(King Narmer)- Protected by Horus, God of the Sky (son of Ra – God of the Sun)- Akhenaton – brought a new god (Aton – Sun God) into Egypt, who replaced Ra- Common roles: - Commander in Chief- Shepherd of his people- Protector of social justice (Ma’at)- Once the pharaoh died, his soul (Ka) would remain and was thought to have succeeded him- People prayed to the Ka- Built the great pyramids as tombs to protect itPyramids:- Built to protect the soul and body of deceased Pharaohs- Pharaohs were buried with their belongings and sealed inside the tombs- Originally covered in white limestone- Made of many massive blocks (about 2.5 tons each) - A priest predicted that it would take 40,000 men to finish them in 20 years but it actuallyhad to have taken 100,000 men to finish them in 20 years- Blocks were cut out by starting a fire next to granite cliffs, cutting out the blocks, then using tools to carve them out of the side of the cliffAfterlife:- Everyone went to the same place – Paradise- Bodies were preserved (mummification) in order to preserve and protect them- Nobility were buried in tombs where they were fed every day and the walls were covered in paintings of events from their lives- Kept the Ka entertained - Pictures of things they liked to do, hunting, farming, drinking beer, the funeral ceremony, people mourning their death, the banquet after the funeral- Always plentiful food in paradise – all crops grow constantly, no off


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