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UM PSYX 233 - Agism

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What is gerontology?The study of aging from maturity through old age, as well as the study of older adults as a special groupAgeismAging stereotypesPhysicalEx. Most people over 65 are physically impaired. Ex. Large percentages live in nursing homesFact: only 5% of older adults live in nursing homesCognitiveEx. people over 65 are unable to think clearly, remember well, or learn new things. A large percentage is “senile”Fact: only 5-7% have Alzheimer’sCrystallized: remembering words, definitions, fats etc.VS.Fluid: being able to perform tasks etc.Alzheimer’s: type of dementiaDementia: broadEmotionalEx. people over 65 are unhappyFact: rates of many emotional disorders are at their lowest among people over 65Sense of fulfillmentSocialPeople over 65 are isolatedAge sensitivityDevelop age empathyThe meaning of ageChronological age (function of the calendar)Time or age dependent processesNot result of age itselfThe aging processPrimary agingNatural process of agingThe passage of timeSecondary agingEnvironment, biological effects, etc.Parkinson’s diseaseTertiary agingRapid losses that occur shortly before deathTerminal dropThe life-span perspectiveTwo phasesEarly phase- childhood, adolescenceRapid age-related increases in peoples size and abilitiesLater phase- young adulthood, middle age, old ageChanges in size=slow, abilities continue to develop as people continue to adapt to their environments4 key featuresmulti-directionalitydevelopment involves both growth and declineas people grow in one area, they may lose in another at different ratesnon-lineargross motorphysicalintelligence (IQ)fluid vs. crystallizedplasticityones capability is not predetermined or concretemany skills can be trained or improved with practiceteach an old dog new tricksgaining skillstechnologyinteraction with environment (IQ)Flynn effect: every decade, the average IQ increases by 15Neural plasticityhistorical contexteach of us develops within a particular set of circumstances determined by the historical time in which we are born, and the culture in which we grow uplocationculturehistorical eventsex. the great depressionmultiple causationhow people develop results from a wide variety of forcesbiological, psychological, sociocultural, life-cyclepersonenvironmentnature vs. nurturegrowth->maintenance->loss regulationfeatures of life-span developmentage related changesreduction: amount and quality of biologically based resourcesincreased: amount and quality of cultural resources for continued growthdecline: efficiency with which cultural resources are usedlack of “old-age friendly” supportDemographics of agingUS trendsEducation & moneyFuture adults=more educatedBetter educated people live longerLongevity of lifeMore moneyAccess to good health careHealth/diseaseSocial securityFear that SS and pension systems will be drained, and health care will become increasingly unaffordableGlobal trendsIndustrialized countriesJapanIncreased number of elderly due to declining birth rateStrain on country’s resourcesDeveloping countriesIncrease in older adult populationStrain on resourcesImplications for health careOdds of older living parentDaily expenditureEconomic growth and workersBirth rateSupply and demandDistribution of aging populationGraphSocial cohesionPerspectivesIndividualismCollectivismForces of developmentBiologicalIncludes all genetic and health-related factors that affect developmentEx. menopause, wrinklingPsychologicalInclude all internal, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect developmentHelps make people uniqueSocioculturalInclude interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect developmentBio-psychosocial frameworkOrganizes biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human developmentEach person is the result of a unique combo of the 3 forcesLife-cycle forcesReflect differences in how the same event of combo of bio, psycho, and sociocultural forces effect people at different life pointsInterrelations among the forcesCohortA group of people born at the same point or specific time span in historical timeGreat depression3 influencesnormative age-graded influencesexperiences caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces that occur to most people of a particular agelife storynormative history-graded influencesevents that most people in a specific culture experience at the same timeevents may be biological (epidemics)psychological (stereotypes)sociocultural (changing attitudes toward sexuality)often give a generation a unique identityex. baby boom generation, millennialsnon-normative influencesrandom or rare events that may be important for a specific individual but are not experienced by most peopleex. winning the lottery, accident or layoffThe nature nurture issueOldNature vs. nurtureCurrentNature and nurturePredispositionsEx. born with athletic genes, but not given the atmosphere to develop into the athlete to express those genesEpigeneticsPTSD (ADBR2)MAO-A (warrior gene)Parkinson’s disease and pesticidesStability- change issueBalanceBoth necessaryPersonalityFive factor modelNeuroticismOpennessAgreeableConscientiousnessextraversionHow stable through life?Personality more stable as age increasesContinuity-discontinuity controversyConcerns whether a particular development phenomenon represents a smooth progression over time (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)DiscontinuityErikson’s stages of psychosocial developmentstepsProblem solvingContinuityReaction speedMemory of wordsBoth?Growing older?When teen?Adult?Old adult?Universal vs. context-specific development controversyApply to all vs. apply to someBenefits of each?Recall individualism vs collectivismAll or some?Which perspective does the book take?PSYX 233 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Last Lecture I. Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription Outline of Current Lecture II. Perspectives on Adult Development and AgingA. The life span perspectiveB. The bio-psychosocial frameworkC. The nature vs. nurture issueD. The stability change issueE. The continuity-discontinuity controversy F. The universal vs. context-specific development controversy Current LectureWhat is gerontology?o The study of aging from maturity through old age, as well as the study of older adults as a special groupThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not


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