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NRC 225 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. The Man Who Planted TreesOutline of Current Lecture I. Land EthicII. Why Study the Fur TradeIII. Who were the real savvy traders?IV. Where in the World in 1650?V. Where in the World in 1810?VI. RiversVII. BeaversVIII. Trading CompaniesIX. ExplorationX. CanoesCurrent LectureForests are constantly changing.Every forest has a story.All conservation is local.We all need a land ethic.Land ethic-comes from understanding change and the need for actionWhy study the Fur Trade? (1600-1850)Effects on:Forest ecosystemsPeople and culturesNational and world historyThe present and our perspectiveThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.The futureWhenever and wherever two worlds meet in forests….or about forests and natural resourcesAlthough the English people thought they were getting a good deal the Indians were actual the ‘savvy traders’ because the fur to the Indians were relatively value-less compared to the goods they were getting“And it can easily be argued that the red man’s sense of values in cherishing functional tools and textiles was more commendable that the white man’s craving for beaver skins that served no better purpose than to adorn the top of his head”Where in the World? (1650)Springfield MassachusettsInitial establishment of Bay Colony took place hereIndians wouldn’t have made it without cash from fur trade to get them through winterWilliam Pynchon made a fortune by sending 25,000 beaver pelts to EnglandEngland, Holland, France, and Sweden were all buying pelts Where in the World? (1810)Fort Dearborn, Illinois (which became Chicago)St. Louis (near Mississippi) big part in tradingMost important fur trade in world is Montreal on St. Laurent RiverMost cities in America were developed on rivers for fur trading then became millsGlobal demand for fur and vast waterways is the reason for the success of fur tradeThe intensity of hunting beavers increased during fur tradeBeaversLargest of rodent familyLarge male can reach 75-90 lbsLive for 20 yearsEvolved for specialized role in water-eyes have film to close and noses naturally closeEveryone wanted the under fur for felt hats-used Mercury in hats so people went insaneBeavers almost went extinct during fur tradeMammalsFamily group (colony)Dam and pondsLodge and food cacheFew predators-ottersTrees, limbs, barkPond, wetland, meadow habitat*Shape forest succession and stream networksAdult pair beaver colony-establish dam One to six kits (born in late-May)-depending on quality of habitatTwo year olds leave in early spring to start their own coloniesNorthwest Company-fur Trade CompanyTraded with EuropeCompany motto “perseverance”The Great Hall at Grand PortageKey network in fur trade-carry everything you need carry 9 miles to get into AmericaFur trade had to move to Canada to Fort WilliamFort William, OntarioNot a small operation-foxesAnnual Rendezvous-meeting of Northwest Company at Old Fort WilliamNWC partners, ClerksSurveyors and GuidesTraders from outpostsPlanned out the next year of tradingHudson Bay Company-ultimately won out-it is still around todayVenture capitalist-people invest money for fur trade and became successfulGiven unlimited governmental powers over what became CanadaGot there name from entering the Hudson Bay in CanadaYork Factory – boats got there fur here (In Canada)Merger between Northwest and Hudson’s Bay and CompaniesHudson Bay buys northwest and own most of Canada and part of N. AmericaExploration -1789 and 1793Published in 1801Sir Alexander Mackenzie knighted by King George IIINo accurate mapsNo comprehensive knowledge of forests and peopleLewis and Clark expedition in 1803-went quickly after to for the name of AmericaDavid ThompsonHudson Bay Company workerTalented at mapping outRealized you couldn’t use compass in North because of poles used the stars to make mapsMade the great map-western part of Canada and western part of the United StatesVery important to fur tradeBirch Bark Canoe“Without the birch-bark canoe the history of inland North America would have been altogether different.”Other boats were too heavy, too clumsyNorth CanoesMajor role in fur tradeCarry 2,000 lbs of furWork force canoe for interior of AmericaMontreal CanoesMuch largerUsed for canoeing the great lakesLight Weight and could carry a lotThere was a weight limit of canoers 5’4’’ and 180 lbsWeight limit of bale of fur-90 lbs (50-60 pelts) Voyageurs usually carried two at a time over portagesFur traders were dependent on natives to navigate landsTrades go out from Montreal-furs come in from interior and rendezvous at Fort WilliamPlan out next year’s businessAfter trade goods go back to interior and furs go to MontrealTraders ate Pemmican-dried Buffalo meet pounded into a powder Added fat to it and added raisinsMost nutrient dense balanced food-good for


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