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LINGUIS 100 1st EditionLecture 9Phonology - Linguistics 100 Week 3Phonology is the study of the parts and order of sounds in in languagePhonetics- how sounds are mad. Phonology- how the brain interprets sounds-Sound inventory- sounds in a languageWhich sounds are in a language?Where do these sounds occur?How do these sounds group with other sounds?Which Sounds are in a Language?-Examine words for consonants and vowels:/pepeluali/ ‘February’ This is systematic and can look at the sounds of a language to figure out how these words transferred or changed into being this -Hawaiian uses what it already has in it’s sound inventory to mimic the sounds ofEnglish Replacing foreign v sounds with native p sounds that is in their language-All F’s replaced with P’s because similar in their make-up (meaning both are voiceless, etc.)/kepakemapa/ ‘September’ Where Can Sounds Occur? -English sound /ng/ can only be at the end of the word: Ex: hang, ankle - But in Vietnamese it can be at the beginning of the word like name: NguyenNot just that sounds are different but where they may occur varies from language to languageHow do Sounds group with Other Sounds?-Syllable- beat or rhythm in a word all words have at least one syllable -Example: ankle (has two syllables, but second syllable does not have a vowel)-How many consonants can you have in a syllable and how many vowels? And where do they occurEx: If I want to say excuse me in Spanish versus Polish (in spanish you get to vowel much quicker, in Polish you have many more consonants before the vowel)-This often causes presumptions about languages (ie. which is spoken quicker, but this may not necessarily be true for speed, rather it is the way we are hearing it because we do not always know the patterns of syllables in specific languages)*In English we can only have 3 consonants before we get to a vowel* -Hawaiian does not have more than a consonant followed by a vowel- no consonants after the vowel Open Syllable vs. Closed Syllable open- ends with a vowelclosed- ends with a consonant Examples:-pat- closed -add- closed-moo- open-luck- closed-ny- open- slu- open See IPA Chart for the above What forms can sounds take?-If you have the sound [t] in english there are many ways that it can be pronounced depending on the place that it takes in a word and the way that we take short cuts as a native language-When someone says whenever you see the letter t that is a [t] sound, but that is not always the case -Ex: Kitten, butter -Point is we do not always pronounce everything in exact way it is supposed to be when we are taught the sounds (if we did do this, the language would sound much too forced and overpronounced) -If asked to produce a [t] sound we could not give the three forms that it comes in when we say: kitten, butter, cart-It is not that we do not care enough to pronounce it, or laziness. It is just the way that a language (all of them do this) functions for efficiency -Imagine if we pronounced every letter in every word they way the sound was originally taught to us- we would be speaking for twice the amount oftime as we usually doPuff of Air with [t] sound- star versus tar-Only one letter changes in the word but there is a puff of air with the way we say tar versus starPhonemes-mental representation of a sound where one sound starts and stops How do we know when this happens?-Languages vary in how they divide and group sounds -Contrasts in sounds make a difference in meaning-Phonemes can include more than one sound bought versus pot might sound the same but the difference in sounds is a difference in mental representation -5 different sounds (especially with [t]) all get grouped into one type of sound, even though we specifically say them differently, because the difference signifies a difference in meaning as well as sound Allophones-Sometimes languages have two or more sounds that are one phoneme-These sounds are like superheroesThe two variations never occur in the same place-Complementary distribution -If we have different environments, you might not know they are the exact same thingsWe have to look for places where there is the exact same environment but also different things- Can we recognize this Data:-in-itAre n and t the same phoneme or different just in two different environments-They are same environment but different phonemes -Same with p and b in pin and bin Now add pit and bit- These are all similar phonemes Minimal Pair or Allophone?-Want to find all of places where everything is the same except for that one letter which is phoneme- so we then say that they are allophone -See her notes on D2L for this for specific examples-Compare leather to shoulder and see that you have same environment, but different phonemes -Will talk more of allophones on WednesdayReading and Assignment for Week-Phonology -Chapter 4-Sound patterns of Languages -Page 49 and answer all of the study questions this week Experiment in Linguistics ProgramParticipate and get a free lunch 45 minutes and get paid $7Phonology lab - 9th floor of Curtain Listen to words on headphones and write down wordsShe will be putting contact information (e-mail) on


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