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UNCG PSY 265 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 265Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6Lecture 1 (1-14-2015)Personality science- Personality science is the scientific study of what humans are like.- In order to understand and study what people are like, two (2) aspects, or dimensions, must be taken into account: 1) The typical ways people think, feel and behave in general2) The typical ways people think, feel and behave in everyday lifeComparing personality- Being like many other people means that there is a shared commonality among a host ofpeople, but not among everyone. Cultural background Gender Historical cohort Being like all other people means that there is a shared commonality among human nature. Universal ways people vary Personality traits (Extraversion/Introversion)- Being like no other people means that everyone is different in his or her own way.  Taste in music Self-presentation Hobbies- Being like no others (everyone in general) means that socialization or life experiences distinguish people from each other. Beliefs Traumatic events Life storiesDimensions of personality science- There is no specific person that is of interest, but a more holistic approach to studying what people are like. Commonalities among all and many people.- The general dimension allows for prediction of life outcomes. Who is most likely to be arrested? Who is most likely to be happy?- Understanding how everyday activities, thoughts, and feelings are representative of personality Facebook posts Religious affiliation and observance Spending time with friends- There is little interest in pathological or abnormal topics. These type of topics are better suited for clinical psychology.Lecture 2 (1-21-2015)Ways to measure personality- Interviews- Self-reports scales- Informant reports- Experience samplingLecture 3 (1-16-2015)Correlational methods- Looks for relationships or links between variables. Is X related to Y?- Results can be confusing or difficult to interpret. X causes Y Y causes X Z causes both X and YPearson r basic statistic- Represents the degree of linear association between two variables- Sign: Can be positive or negative. A perfect negative or inverse relationship is represented by (-1) No relationship is represented by (0) A perfect positive correlation is represented by (1)- Size: Size of r is also known as the “effect size” Small is represented by r= .10 Medium is represented by r= .30 Large is represented by r= .50Correlations and personality- Personality is seen as the independent variable. Personality traits are inner, psychobiological causes that are stable.- A few causal paths can be excluded. Extraversion and self-presentation Being well organized and having poor class attendance- Some causal paths cannot be excluded Neuroticism and stress/health Exercise and extraversionLecture 4 (1-28-2015)Understanding traits- Personality traits are normally distributed. Bell curve Low to high Represents every person- Traits are usually stable Reflects biological traits Are not impermanent- There is a host of ways that people are different.- Traits are fundamentally, universally and panculturally different.- Classifying traits aids in understanding basic traits.Lecture 5 (2-2-2015)Top 5 traits (OCEAN)- Openness to experience: The world is intriguing to individuals who are open to experience. Attracted to creative or intellectual careers. Likely to get advanced degrees.- Conscientiousness: The world is full of order and structure to individuals who are conscience. Conventional in self-presentation. Attracted to “system” jobs. Rarely procrastinates and is punctual.- Extraversion: The world is full of excitement for extraverted individuals. More popular and outgoing. More satisfied in relationships. More involved in their community.- Agreeableness: The world is friendly to individuals who have an agreeable personality. Usually seek social occupations. Make long-term friends and relationships. Strong social bonds and faithful in marriage. Less aggressive or hostile. Assortative friendships.- Neuroticism: The world is threatening or scary to neurotic individuals. Risk for stress related illnesses and mental disorders. Insecure in relationships. Handles criticism and stress poorly.Lecture 6 (2-4-2015)Origin of top 5 traits- Lexical research evaluates the trait words used in a language and evaluate how those words cluster.- The top 5 traits are found in all languages according to lexical research. Self-report tradition: A lot of people are given self-reports and the trait scales are analyzed to find a cluster. Statistical tools: Factor analysis, cluster analysis, latent class analysis.Differences in traits- Gender: Women are higher than man when it comes to neuroticism. Women are slightly higher than men when it comes to extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Women and men are identical when it comes to openness to experience.- Regional: Personality varies based on geographical location. Environment shapes personality. Hardship Isolation/Social bonds Nutrition Personality shapes environment. People migrate to places that appeal to them. People who are open to experience live in states that are more liberal. People who are conscientious live in states with health promotion. People who are extraverts live in states where there are high crimes rates and high socialinvolvement. People who are agreeable live in states where there are low crime rates and more religious. People who are neurotic live in states with low health promotion and have lower life


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