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OU PHIL 1273 - Introduction to Deontological Ethics

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PHIL 1273 1st Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture I. Discussion of UtilitarianismA. Focus on ActionsB. Ignorance of RightsC. ProblemsD. AlternativesOutline of Current Lecture I. Transition from Utilitarianism to Deontological EthicsA. Three Types of Moral TheoryII. Focus on Intention (Motive)A. Tom and Sally CaseB. Lessons of the CaseIII. Focus on FreedomA. Pat and Sandy CaseCurrent LectureI. Transition from Utilitarianism to Deontological Ethicsa. Three types of moral theoryi. What makes the right thing right?ii. What is meant when morality is discussed?1. Actions and Personsa. Type 1: consequentialism views effects of actions in terms of resulting happinessb. Type 2: deontological ethics views the intention behind theactions based on internal motivesII. Focus on Intention (Motive)a. Tom and Sally Casei. Tom fixes Sally’s flat tireii. Alternative motives for Tom’s actions1. To get a reward2. A feeling of sympathy3. To do the right thing by helping a person in need4. Does Tom act morally? All have selfish intentions involvediii. For any of the alternatives, does judgment of Tom’s action depend on whether or not Sally gets to her interview?These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.iv. What would Kant say?1. Tom does not consider the consequences, being that Sally gets to her interview2. He only considers the motives behind his actionsb. Lessons of the Casei. Evaluation of action on basis beyond consequences, rather the inclusion of motives behind actions1. Murder vs. Manslaughter: the difference is intentionii. Kant and deontological ethics understand morality in terms of motives1. Not that consequences are irrelevant, but they are not a determining factoriii. Sandel says the core of Kantian theory is freedom1. How does the focus on intention become a focus on freedom?III. Focus on Freedoma. Puzzle: doesn’t morality constrain individuals by making them less free?i. Pat and Sandy Case1. Both Pat and Sandy desire chocolate and can take it without consequence2. Pat takes it and enjoys it; Sandy does not take it because it belongs to someone else3. Who acted more freely?4. What would Kant say? Sandy acted more freely because Pat is a slave to his compulsions and


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