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NCSU PSY 370 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 370 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 12 Chapter 1-7Lecture 1 (January 7)Chapter 1 (Introduction)1. What is “Personality”? - “An individual’s characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms—hidden or not—behind those patterns” (Funder, 2013 p. 5)Personality is:- Unique to the individual- Relatively consistent (enduring & stable)- Patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving 2. The Goals of Personality Psychology:- Empirically explain the whole person in his or her daily environment - Identify & understand the mechanisms behind human thought, feeling, and behavior - Create theories that are increasingly more accurate and research-based (Ryckman, 2013)3. Why multiple approaches? - Approach (Paradigm): – Theoretical view of personality that focuses on some phenomena and ignores others o – The six major approaches covered in this course are needed to:  limit the scope  increase understanding4. Six Basic Approaches to Personality: - Trait (Dispositional) Approach- Biological Approach - Psychoanalytic Approach - Phenomenological Approach - Learning (Behavioral) Approach - Cognitive Approach5. Which approach has the “right” idea?- Different approaches are best seen as complementary - Approaches are not mutually exclusive- Approaches address different questions “One Big Theory”- Proposed way to merge approaches into new framework/approach- Research may bridge the gap Introduction to the Cardiovascular System- There is no completely “right” ideaLecture 2 (January 9) Chapter 2 (Types of Data)1. Data are Clues - Clues can be ambiguous, misinterpreted, or unreliable at times - Psychological data, like clues, can also be ambiguous, misleading, and unreliable - The more clues, the clearer the picture becomes2. Types of Data - Self-Report Data - Informant (Collateral) Report Data - Life Outcome Data - Behavioral Data 3. Self-Report (S Data) - Self-evaluation of own personality - Typically questionnaires and surveys - Most common data source i. Examples Two Common Types 1. Open-ended 2. Forced-choice- Advantages i. Based on a large amount of information ii. Access to thoughts, feelings, and intentions iii. Definitional truth for some constructs iv. Causal Force (Swann & Ely, 1984) v. Simple and cost-effective vi. Face validity- Self-Report: Disadvantages i. Social desirability ii. Imperfect memoryiii. Lack of self-insight (e.g., Kolar et al., 1996; John & Robins, 1994) • Active repression or distortion 4. Informant/Collateral Report (I Data) - Judgments by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the individual’s personality i. Based on observing and interacting with people ii. Two Common Types •1. Open-ended 2. Forced-choice- Advantages i. Large amount of information(Hofstee, 1994; Connelly & Ones, 2010) ii. Real-world observations iii. Definitional truth iv. Causal force (Rosenthal & Rubin, 1978; Snyder & Swann, 1978)- Disadvantages i. Limited behavioral information ii. Lack of access to private experience iii. Error (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) iv. Personal Bias 12Life 5. Outcomes (L Data) - Examplesi. Archival Records ii. Medical Records iii. Criminal Histories iv. Academic Transcripts- The “residue” of personality - Advantages i. Objective and verifiable ii. Intrinsic importance iii. Psychological relevance - Disadvantages i. Multidetermination ii. Privacy and/or ethical concerns 6. Behavioral Data (B Data):- Natural/Observational i. Examples: 1. Case Studies 2. Daily Dairies & Experience Sampling 3. Naturalistic Observations ii. Advantage: 1. Realistic iii. Disadvantages: 1. Difficult and expensive 2. Time intensive 3. Desired contexts may be rare - Lab/Testi. Examples: 1. Mechanical recording devices 2. Physiological Data 3. (Some) Projective Techniques ii. Advantages: 1. Range of contexts in the lab 2. Appearance of objectivityiii. Disadvantage:1. Uncertain interpretation 2. Issues in Measurementa. Triangulation b. Important to collect more than one type when possible c. Consistent findings increase confidence and establish stability (McCrae, 1994)d. Discrepancies can be interesting and informativeResearch Methods Chapter 31. Goals of Psychological Science- Question pre-existing knowledge - Explore the unknown - Test hypothesis to improve theories - Research: scientific exploration of unknown Lecture 3 (January 12)2. Data Quality- Reliability i. Getting the same measurement on repeated occasions ii. Measurement error iii. States versus traits iv. Threats to Reliability 1. Low instrument precision2. State/characteristics of the participant 3. State/characteristics of the experimenter4. Environment v. Enhancing Reliability 1. Standardized procedures and protocols 2. Keep participants engaged 3. Aggregation - Validityi. Degree to which a measure actually reflects what it is intended to measure 1. Types: a. Constructb. Predictivec. Contentd. Faceii. A broad & “slippery” concept iii. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient for validity - Generalizabilityi. Degree to which a measure or result of an experiment applies to other tests, situations, or peopleii. Examples of issues1. Gender bias 2. Shows versus no-shows (e.g., Pagan et al., 2006)3. Cohort effects 4. Ethnic and cultural diversityiii. “Burden of Proof” 7. Design - Case Study Method i. Close study of a particular event, person, or entity to find out as much as possible ii. Examples1. Sigmund Freud – Gordon Allport (1965) 2. Dan McAdams & “Life Narratives” (McAdams et al., 2004) iii. Advantages1. Describes the whole phenomenon 2. Source for ideas and hypothesis generation 3. Can be necessary for understanding an individualiv. Disadvantages 1. No control 2. Replication not usually possible 3. Can’t confirm relevant factors (causation) 4. Generalizability limited - Experimental Method i. Establishes the causal relationship between an independent variable (IV) and a dependent variable (DV)ii. Random assignment to experimental groups iii. Difference between groups is larger than expected by chance iv. Advantages1. Causal 2. Experimental control 3. Can be used for prediction 4. Replication v. Disadvantagesvi. Potential confounding variables vii. Typically an unnatural setting viii. Ethical concerns ix. Representative? - Correlational Method i. Research technique that establishes the relationship between two variables (predictor variable and


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